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Find Chinese materials in SearchWorks

Last Updated: 1-May-2014

The purpose of this guide is to inform library users with the basics and tips in searching Chinese records in SearchWorks and Socrates, as well as databases such as Worldcat.

Subject Librarians

Chinese studies librarian
(650) 723-3451


Find Chinese materials with Chinese characters

1. Searching by romanization is still the most effective and reliable way to find Chinese-language materials in SearchWorks. Everyone searching for Chinese materials still needs to be familiar with Pinyin romanization rules.

2. Simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese are inter-searchable. For example, using the simplified characters ??? for an author search, SearchWorks will retrieve records with both ??? and ??? as the author.

3. Each Chinese character is indexed as a single word in SearchWorks. No space is needed between characters.

4. For a more precise search, double quotation marks can be used for phrase or term search. For example, “??????” in the keyword search query, records with exact phrases will be retrieved. ??“????” as the search query, Term 1 is ????, term 2 is ??. SearchWorks will retrieve records where "????" appears as a phrase and ?? appears anywhere in the record. Records with term 1 and term 2 in the same field will be ranked the highest. Please note, when you use double quotation marks “ ”, you have to switch input mode to English. Currently, Chinese-style quotation marks “ ” will not work.

5. For some technical and historical reasons, a small number of characters with variant forms, for example ? and ?, ?and ?, ? and?, etc., require extra mapping and are not inter-searchable. Search by romanization if no results or limited results are returned.

6. When Chinese character searches result in a mix of Japanese, Chinese and Korean language records, you can limit the search to Chinese records by selecting Chinese from the language field under “Limit Your Result” on the left.

If you have questions or need assistance with Chinese-language searching in SearchWorks, please contact the Chinese Studies Librarian, Zhaohui Xue or 650-388-8295.

Find Chinese materials in Pinyin

A. Which romanization system to use

The Pinyin system has replaced the Wade-Giles system as the standard in libraries in North America for creating romanized readings for Chinese characters. The means, in general, library users must search in Pinyin to find Chinese language materials, regardless of publishing locations.

There are two exceptions:

1. Place names. Place names in Taiwan used as suject or as headings for government or geographical entities remain in Wade-Giles, although they are in Pinyin when appearing in title, imprint, and other fields of the records. For example, ??? as subject heading is "T ' ai-chung shih", but "Taizhong shi" in the title of a Chinese-language book; ?? as subject heading is "Kao-hsiung", but "Gaoxiong" in the title.

2. Personel names. Those Chinese names in Wade-Giles that have been well established are not converted to Pinyin, such as ??? Chiang Cing-kuo and ??? Lee Teng-hui.

B. How to enter search terms in Pinyin to search Chinese materials

In general, enter the romanization of each Chinese charater with a space, such as ???????? ming qing xiao shuo bi jiao yan jiu.

However, there are certain situations where you need to join syllables.

1. Join syllables for multi-character surnames and given names. Also join syllables for given names, Buddhist names, courtesy names, etc.,

??? liu shaoqi

??? ouyang xiu

???? sima siangru

??? nikesen

???? wugangzhuren

?? kongzi

2. Join syllables for multi-character geographic names. Do not join the generic terms for geographical features or jurisdictions.

??????? zhonghua renmin gongheguo

???????? xinjiang weiwuer zizhiqu

??????? taiwan sheng li bo wu guan

?? yi xian

??? hainan dao

??? taiping yang

3. For names of countries, join syllables according to the practice followed by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names.

??????? zhonghua renmin gongheguo

???? zhonghua minguo

????????????? chaoxian minzhu zhuyi renmin gongheguo

4. Join syllables for names of racial, linguistic, or ethnic groups.

??? jidu tu

??? maonan zu

??? meiguo ren

The ALA-LC Romanization Table for Chinese contains details on when to join or separate syllables when you enter Pinyin to search for Chinese materials. You may need to familiar yourself with it in order to do effective and efficient search.