See also: Rwanda news


Academie Royale des sciences d'outre-mer
In French and English. The Academy was founded in 1928 as the "Institut Royal Colonial Belge" (Royal Belgian Colonial Institute). Publications are in French, Flemish or English. Has the full text of Bulletins des Séances, the various Mémoires studies series, thr Belgian Colonial Biography / Belgian Overseas Biography published 1948-2015. The Memoires cover the economy, Rwanda, geology, copper, transporation, railroads, volcanoes, dams, scientific studies. There are online Maps of Atlas du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, maps showing explorations, anti-slavery campaigns, geology, climate, national parks, languages, volanoes, population, Catholic and Protestant missions, medical facilities, telecommunications, tsetse flies, hydroelectricity, military, mining, etc. Based om Brussels, Belgium.

African Journal of Legal Studies
(Ottawa, Canada)"refereed e-journal published by The Africa Law Institute focusing on good governance, democracy and rule of law issues in Africa.... Published quarterly (main issue) and monthly (supplementary issue),...." Vol 1, No. 1, 2004 has a full text article, Reconciliation in Post-Genocide Rwanda, by Eugenia Zorbas, 24 p. in Adobe pdf.

African Women in Media
Founded 2016/2017. Has reports such as, Barriers for Rwandan Women Journalists.

In French and English. On Rwanda (and the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Articles such as "A Gikongoro, on parlait de la France, et de la langue française", interviews with National University of Rwanda students, visitors' accounts of Rwanda, a university development project. Many photographs of Butare, Gikongoro Province, Lake Kivu, places in Rwanda. "Launched by a Rwandan university student, Mukaruginiza Tessa, and her American boyfriend, Brian Luedke, who teaches English in Kigali." Site based in Roanoke, Virginia.

Akagera Rhein ev.
In German, some English. Group based in Bonn, Germany opposed to the Kagame government. "Akagera-Rhein e.V. ist ein deutsch-ruandischer Kulturverein. Der Name symbolisiert die verbindende Funktion der Grenzflüsse Akagera und Rhein. Der Verein wurde am 23. April 1994 in Bonn gegründet. Mitglieder können sowohl Ruanderinnen und Ruander als auch deutsche und andere Freunde Ruandas sein." Documents, news.

Amahoro People's Congress
The site has closed. Put in the site URL in the Internet Archive, Wayback Machine and you will find some older content. In French, English, and Kinyarwanda. Formerly Arena-Isangano. "AMAHORO People's Congress is a Political Party formed in response to the failures of the political system presently in Rwanda." Is opposed to the Paul Kagame government. Its President is Alexandre Kimenyi.

American Refugee Committee
Has field offices in Guinea, Liberia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan. Includes a May 2001 report on Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, annual report, photographs taken by Rwandan refugee children.

American University. Washington College of Law - Rwanda Commemoration Project: Genocide In Our Time
The College of Law, Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law's Rwanda Commemoration Project: Genocide In Our Time produced a resource booklet (background, programming ideas, bibliography), a lesson plan for high schools. Based in Washington, D.C.

Atlantic Monthly - Bystanders to Genocide
Full text, Sept. 2001, article by Samantha Power. "The author's exclusive interviews with scores of the participants in the decision-making, together with her analysis of newly declassified documents, yield a chilling narrative of self-serving caution and flaccid will-and countless missed opportunities to mitigate a colossal crime."

Avega - Agahozo, Association of Genocide Widows / Association des Veuves du Génocide Agahozo
Organisation for widows, orphans, children, elderly and handicapped victims of the 1994 genocide. "It is estimated that 60-70 % of Rwanda ’s population is made up of women, of which 50% are widows." Members raise funds through sales of Peace Baskets. Based in Kigali, Rwanda.

Avocats sans Frontieres
(Bruxelles, Belgium) In French. See their Avocats Sans Frontières in Rwanda. Had a project, Justice pour tous au Rwanda, with reports on Rwanda (2000 Annual Report, 38 p. in PDF).

Banque Nationale du Rwanda
In French. Includes statistics (price indices, external debt, etc.), Bank annual reports (full text), Rapports sur l'évolution économique et financière du Rwanda, Monetary Policy and Development of Financial Sector in Rwanda, a Seminar on Monetary Policy in Rwanda (Powerpoint presentations), Stratégie de lutte contre le SIDA à la BNR, history of the currency, etc.. Based in Kigali.

Belgium. Parlement. Senat.
In French. Use the Search to find Rwanda information.

See also on the Royal Museum for Central Africa, Digital Information Centre site, the text of Commission d'enqu?te parlementaire concernant les evenements du Rwanda and the web site of Reseau Grand Lacs.

Beyond the Gates
[also called Shooting Dogs] Film first released in the U.K. as Shooting Dogs. Reviewed in the New York Times by Stephen Holden, March 9, 2007, "From a schoolhouse in Rwanda...".

Brilliant Image Productions
Established in 2001 in Kenya by Julius Keya, an international filmmaker. Video productions ranging from documentaries, music videos, advertisements, feature films. Produced a film on Gacaca (Rwanda); the film can be seen on the web site. Based in Nairobi, Kenya.

British Broadcasting Corporation - Great Lakes
News in Kinyarwanda. To listen to the audio, you'll need a sound card, speakers, Real Player on your computer.

Bulletin de l’APAD
In French and English. Published by the Association euro-africaine pour l’anthropologie du changement social et du développement. Full text articles online, such as Jean Nzisabira, «Les organisations populaires du Rwanda : leur émergence, leur nature et leur évolution. Based at the Afrika-Studiecentrum, Leiden, Netherlands.

Canadian Forces College
Has information on UNAMIR and Canada's Operation Lance, their participation in UNAMIR. See also Canadian Armed Forces in Rwanda.

Canadian Military Journal
In French. Vol. 2, No. 1, printemps 2001 contains the article, L'Operation "Assurance:" planifier une force multinationale pour le Rwanda / Zaire, by Michael A. Hennessy, Ph.D. 10 pages.

CARE Campaign for Rwanda
Describes CARE's projects in Rwanda.

Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict
Established 1994, co-chaired by David A. Hamburg and Cyrus R. Vance. Has the full text of its final report pub. 1997, "Essays on Leadership" by Boutros Boutros-Ghali, George Bush, Jimmy Carter, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Desmond Tutu, and "Preventing Genocide: How the Early Use of Force Might Have Succeeded in Rwanda" by Scott R. Feil (with Foreword by Lieutenant-General Romeo A. Dallaire). Includes high school and university curriculum guides.

Carter Center - Rwanda
Information on Carter Center Burundi and Rwanda projects. Use the Search form.

Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution (C4IR) Rwanda
A partner of the World Economic Forum Network for Global Technology Governance. The C4IR Rwanda brings together government, industry, civil society, and academia to co-design, test and refine policy frameworks and governance protocols that maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of 4IR technologies. The C4IR Rwanda is primarily focusing on artificial intelligence and data policy.

Clio en Afrique
In French, an electronic journal from the Groupe de recherche (GDR) 1118 du CNRS, "Histoire de l'Afrique: Mémoires et Identités (XVIIéme-XXéme siécles)". Based at the Université de Provence. No. 2, été 1997 has an article by Fabienne Le Houérou, "Le miracle erythreen" and an extensive bibliographic essay by Jean-Pierre Chretien, "Le genocide rwandais".

CNN - Why CEOs Love Rwanda
By Marc Gunther, Fortune senior writer. Article from Fortune magazine. April 3 2007.

Coalition for International Justice
(Washington, D.C.) The Coalition is an "international, non-profit organization working to support
the Yugoslavia and Rwanda war crimes tribunals." Has a page, War Crimes Investigators' Open Source Factual Resources, with links to documents on  Rwanda, a FAQ on the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, who's in custody, detainees' background, released or died. and

COMESA, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
"COMESA [formerly the PTA] exists as an organisation of free independent sovereign states which have agreed to co-operate in developing their natural and human resources for the good of all their people'. With its 19 member states and population of 300 million it forms a major integrated trading block." Has information on customs tariffs by country, road/transport including road distances, economic profiles for each country (Angola, Burundi, Comoros, D.R. Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe) etc. Has the text of Doing Business with COMESA: the Handbook, legal guides to establishing business, etc.

Commission Électorale Nationale / National Electoral Commission
In French, English and Kinyarwanda. Independent body created by the 1993 Arusha Accords to conduct elections. Voter statistics, Report on the constitutional referundum, presidential and parliamentary elections and other documents, national partners, photographs. Based in Kigali, Rwanda.

Conference in Support of Democratic Opportunities in the African Great Lakes Region. Joint Statement and Plan of Action. Montreal, January 22, 1997
12 page statement from a conference sponsored by the International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development (Montreal).

Congo Stamps
Stamps from the DRC (from the Independant State Congo 1886-1908 to the present), Burundi, Rwanda. Detailed descriptions, photographs, bibliography. Forgeries. Questions page. Maintained by Guy van Rijn.

Coopérative des Producteurs Artisanaux de Butare, COPABU
In French and English. Cooperative selling crafts, baskets, greetings cards from artisans. Based in Butare, Rwanda. "This cooperative exports to Italy, and it is rapidly expanding exports to other countries." Supported by the PAB (Promotion de l'Artisanat au Sud du Rwanda) et de la FAAB (Fédération des Associations des Artisans de Butare).

Crisis in the Great Lakes - Anatomy of a Tragedy
Full text articles from the No. 110, winter 1997 issue of Refugees magazine. Includes a chronology. Pub. by the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees.

Dallaire, [General] Roméo A. - Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda
Transcript of a speech by Dallaire, at the Carnegie Counci on Ethics and International Affairs, on his role in Rwanda. Includes photograph. "The Council was established by Andrew Carnegie in 1914 to work toward the ideal of world peace." Based in New York city.

See also video of talk by Dallaire on his book, "Shake Hands with the Devil" Feb. 6, 2005? at the Barnes and Noble bookstore in New York city. Recorded on C-Span2's program BookTV. [need sound card, headset or speakers - and a fast internet connection]

Derscheid, Jean-MarieGuide to the Derscheid microfilm collection of notes, reports and other documents on Rwanda, Burundi and eastern Congo's Kivu and Oriental provinces (primarily from the late 1920s - early 1930s). Compiled by Daniel A. Reboussin. Derscheid was "Professor of Colonial Law of the Institut des Territoires d’Outre-Mer at Antwerp, Secretary-General of the Parc Albert, co-founder of the Institut International pour la Protection de la Nature,..." The master negative of the film is at the University of Florida Library, Gainesville.

Stanford users see the collection at-
Call number: DT449 .R8P22 MFILM
Author: Derscheid, J. M.
Title: [J. M. Derscheid collection of materials on Rwanda and Burundi, 1877-1933] [microform].

Destexhe, Alain
In French. Belgian Senator Alain Destexhe's web site. Instrumental in the formation of the Belgian Commission on the 1994 Rwanda genocide. "Alain Destexhe est l'initiateur parlementaire de la commission d'enquéte sur les événements du Rwanda."

See also background from Lessons from Rwanda ? Lessons for Today from the Danish Government, Ministry of Foreign Affairs site.

Dites-le haut et fort!
In French, English, Kinyarwanda. Concerns the genocide against the Tutsis. Articles on individuals involved in the 1994 events. Site based in Hamilton, Canada.

Domain Name Registration
Information on registering internet domain names for .rw, the top-level domain name for Rwanda.

Educate - The Journal of Doctoral Research in Education
(London) Full text articles online. "published twice a year under the auspices of the Doctoral School at the Institute of Education, University of London."[]=20

Examples of articles:
Funding Higher Education in Rwanda through Loans or Grants: efficiency and equity arguments.

Election, Presidential - August 9, 2010
Front Patriotique Rwandais - Kinyarwanda. 201 site has closed. Present site
Parti Social Démocrate - Social Democratic Party, PSD - 2010 site has closed. Present site
Victoire Ingabire UMUHOZA - Presidential candidate. Site has closed.
National Electoral Commission of Rwanda / Komisiyo y'Igihugu y'amatora

European Union. Election Observation Mission (EOM) to Rwanda - 2003
"Election Observation Mission (EOM) to follow preparations and conduct of the 26 May 2003 referendum to adopt a new Constitution in Rwanda [and] Election Observation Mission (EOM) to follow preparations and conduct of the 25 August Presidential and 29 September Parliamentary elections in Rwanda." Has the report re the constitutional referendum.

Facing History
Resources for teachers on genocide and the Darfur, Sudan crisis. Has Lesson Units - Lessons from Rwanda, "Can Journalism Kill? The Case of Rwandan Hate Radio." A module on Memory, History, Memorials includes Rwanda, the Voortrekker Monument, the South African Constitutional Court, District Six. "Facing History helps students find meaning in the past and recognize the need for participation and responsible decision making." Loans videos (such as Long Night’s Journey into Day: South Africa’s Search for Truth and Reconciliation, Lost Boys of Sudan) to educators in the Facing History network. See video clip by K. Anthony Appiah on the value of Facing History programs. Based in Brookline, Massachusetts.

Ferroggiaro, William - The U.S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994. Information, Intelligence and the U.S. Response
March 24, 2004 report. "That the Clinton Administration decided against intervention at any level was not for lack of knowledge of what was happening in Rwanda." The National Security Archive is a non-profit non-governmental NGO founded by scholars and journalists interested in obtaining documents under the Freedom of Information Act. It is based at George Washington University's Gelman Library in Washington, D.C.

France. Assemblée Nationale. Mission d'information sur le Rwanda
In French. Report (and annexes) of the Quilés Mission on the role of France and the international community in the events surrounding the 1994 Rwanda genocide. Published 16 December 1998.  It includes a chronology of events 1959-1996, information on key political parties and organizations, the main Rwanda government leaders 1990-1994, facts about the Rwanda military forces, an extensive listing of French government officials 1990-1995, list of acronyms, etc.

Article in Le Monde (Les parlementaires rendent leur rapport sur le rôle de la France au Rwanda, par REMY OURDAN), 16 decembre 1998. Purchase online or look in Lexis-Nexis.

See also "Audition de M. Faustin Twagiramungu, Premier Ministre désigné par les accords d'Arusha, Premier Ministre du Rwanda (juillet 1994-août 1995)" 12 mai 1998 23 pages on

Other articles.
The Independent (London), December 16, 1998, "Paris clears itself of Rwanda killings"
Manchester Guardian Weekly, December 27, 1998 LeMonde section "France exonerates itself over Rwanda"
New York Times, December 20, 1998, "Panel Finds French Errors In Judgment On Rwanda"


La France, le Rwanda et le génocide des Tutsi (1990-1994) : Rapport remis au Président de la République le 26 mars 2021 / Vincent Duclert.
Commission de recherche sur les archives françaises relatives au Rwanda et au génocide des Tutsi - Présidence de la République
992 p. The Commission investigated France's role in the Rwanda genocide.

Friends of Burundi and Rwanda - burundi-rwanda Discussion Group
"The Friends of Burundi & Rwanda is a group of Returned Peace Corps Volunteers (as well as friends and associates) who served in Burundi or Rwanda. This groups is affiliated with the National Peace Corps Association."

Front Patriotique Rwandais
In Kinyarwanda. Political party of the Rwanda Government of Paul Kagame.

Frontline - The Triumph of Evil: How the West Ignored Warnings of the 1994 Rwanda Genocide...
Site for the public television program. Includes interviews with Philip Gourevitch and others, a chronology of events, the influence of the 1993 Somalia events, excerpts from related books, a summary of actions by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the text of crucial cables between the UN commander and Kofi Annan, special reports (The Rwandan Girl Who Refused to Die, by Fergal Keane, The Crime of Genocide by Alain Destaxhe, The Rwandan Crisis by Gerard Prunier), map, etc.

Garreton, Roberto - The Massacres in Former Zaire. Mission Impossible
Article in Le Monde Diplomatique, December 1997.

Genocide Archive of Rwanda
Testimonies, audio and video materials,  photographs, physical objects, documents, and publications as well as interactive mapping data. The Collection is at the Kigali Genocide Memorial, Kigali,  Rwanda. "...project between the the University of Texas Libraries and the Kigali Genocide Memorial, National Commission for the Fight Against Genocide, Aegis Trust, Ibuka, Iwacu, and other information repositories from Rwanda...a digital archive that aggregates digital copies of materials related to the Genocide for educational and research purposes...."

University of Maryland research project headed by Christian Davenport, Associate Professor of Political Science, and Allan C. Stam, Associate Professor of Government and Deputy Director of Dartmouth’s Rockefeller Center. "What specifically took place during the genocide and how does this vary across the 100 days and across the country? how does this diffuse over space and time? How does information about these activities vary across sources?" Has a database on all genocide-related activities undertaken in Rwanda during the period between April 6th and July 30th, 1994.

Ghosts of Rwanda
Site for the April 1, 2004, PBS TV special. Interviews, timeline, video clips from the TV program, related sites. Essays on America's Response, What are the Lessons of Rwanda?, Can it Happen Again? Commentary on the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Includes the story of Senegalese Captain Mbaye Diagne who "...ignored orders from U.N. headquarters to remain neutral and worked to save the lives of hundreds of Rwandans." Video from the TV program.

Global Information Network In Education (GINIE)
Based at the University of Pittsburg, GINIE helps "provide governments, donor and relief organizations with on-line information, both current and historical, on crisis- and change-oriented educational services and materials.". Their Land Mine Awareness Education Project includes Angola, Rwanda, Somalia, Zaire.

Global Youth Connect
Non-profit "devoted to inspiring, supporting, and connecting youth who are working to protect
human rights around the world." Has a program in Rwanda. Hafsat Abiola was one of the founders of GYC. Based in Woodstock, New York.

God Sleeps in Rwanda
Nominated for 200z5 Best Documentary Short subject for the Academy Awards held March 2006. "The 1994 Rwandan Genocide left the country nearly 70% female handing Rwanda’s women an extraordinary burden and an unprecedented opportunity...“God Sleeps in Rwanda” captures the spirit of five courageous women as they rebuild their lives, redefining women’s roles in Rwandan society and bringing hope to a wounded nation."

Gourevitch, Philip
Gourevitch is the author of "We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families: Stories from Rwanda" (1998, winner of the National Book Critics Circle Award, the Los Angeles Times Book Prize, and the Overseas Press Club Book Award.) His account of Paul Rusesabagina was depicted in the film Hotel Rwanda. Interview with Gourevitch on his background, writing, reporting, Rwanda, Paul Rusesabagina.

Other Links
Review in NY Review of Books by Wole Soyinka ("Hearts of Darkness, October 4, 1998) -
Interview - from the PBS web site for The Triumph of Evil
Yahoo links -
U.C. Santa Barbara biographical information -

The History Place. Genocide in the 20th Century - Rwanda 1994, 800,000 Deaths
Includes a map. Part of The History Place web site.
also has Stories from Rwanda - excerpts from Philip Gourevitch's book, "We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families."

Holder, M. K.- Primate Handedness and Brain Lateralization Research Site
Includes her East African Primate Research Sites with photographs, audio files, information acquired during the course of field research in Rwanda, Uganda, and Congo (former Zaire). Holder is an anthropologist with the Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior (CISAB), Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

Hooker Jr., Richard D. - U.S. Policy Choices During the Rwandan Genocide In Adobe pdf. 12 page report by Lieutenant Colonel Richard D. Hooker Jr., U.S.Army, for a National War College course. On the web site of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC).

Hotel Rwanda
Site is closed. See Wikipedia page. Film background, film clips, the movie trailer, map showing the provinces, timeline, teachers' guide. Hotel manager, Paul Rusesabagina shelters 1000 + refugees from the Rwanda genocide (recounted in Philip Gourevitch's book, "We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families: Stories from Rwanda"). Received the 2005 Academy Award nominations for Best Actor (Don Cheadle), Best Supporting Actress (Sophie Okonedo) and Best Original Screenplay.

Hotel Rwanda Rusesabagina Foundation
Site is closed. Established by Paul Rusesabagina (the hotel manager depicted in the film, Hotel Rwanda); it "provides support, care, and assistance to children orphaned by, and women abused during, the genocide in Rwanda." Based in Chicago, Illinois.

Human Rights Watch - Rwanda
2003 World Report:
1999 World Report:

Human Rights Watch - "Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda"
Full text of the print report. Pub. 1999 with 2004 update. Includes historical background ("The Meaning of “Hutu,” “Tutsi,” and “Twa,” Colonial Changes in the Political System, The Transformation of “Hutu” and “Tutsi”), a chronology. By Alison Des Forges. Pub. by HRW (New York) and the International Federation of Human

Human Rights Watch - "Rwanda, Lasting Wounds: Consequences of Genocide and War for Rwanda’s Children"
Full text report. Published March 2003, 80 p. "Rwandan children still suffer the devastating consequences of the 1994 genocide and the war that preceded and followed it..." "Hundreds of thousands of children were orphaned and many now try to cope on their own."

Human Rights Watch - "Rwanda: Observing the Rules of War?"
Published December 2001. Concerns battles May 2001 between soldiers of the Rwandan government army (Rwandan Patriotic Army, RPA) and fighters of the rebel Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (Armeé pour la Libération du Rwanda, ALIR I).

Human Rights Watch - "Rwanda: the Search for Security and Human Rights Abuses"
Full text report in English and French. Pub. 2000. Concerns human rights abuses by Rwanda government forces. Published April 2000.

Human Rights Watch - "Uprooting the Rural Poor in Rwanda"
Full text report. Pub. May 2001. 91 pages. Edited by Michael McClintock.

Human Rights Watch. California Committee - "The Killing Ground: A Journey to Rwanda, The Church at Ntarama"
Report (1995) by Mike Farrell, Co-Chair of Human Rights Watch, California Committee.

Humanitarian Endeavors
"Andrew Petkun is a photojournalist who takes pictures of people living with HIV/AIDS in order to capture their common humanity, and increase awareness and support to fight the disease." "attention must be refocused to give the HIV/AIDS virus the most universally understandable clarity possible; to humanize and individualize the statistics by showing the faces and telling the personal stories of some of those who've been affected by HIV/AIDS..." Also photos of Rwanda. Based in Yorktown Heights, New York.

In Rwanda We Say...the Family That Does Not speak Dies
Video. "an intimate examination of whether, and how, people can overcome fear, hatred and deep emotional scars after genocide, to forge a common future." "Having confessed to their crimes, and having served the maximum sentence the Gacaca tribunals would eventually impose, perpetrators of appalling crimes are sent home to plow fields and fetch water alongside the people they victimized." From First Run / Icarus Films, Inc., based in Brooklyn, N.Y.

Infoplease. Rwanda Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members

In Spanish, Catalan, French, English. The site is opposed to the present Rwanda government; it is based in Manresa, Catalonia, Spain. "At present our principal task is at the informative level, spreading news about what is happening in Great Lakes district of Africa, especially the genocide being perpetrated against the Hutu people." Has press releases, articles from many sources such as the Centre de Lutte contre l'Impunite et l'Injustice au Rwanda in Brussels, Belgium. or

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC)- Rwanda
Profiles of internally displaced persons in over twenty countries. Extensive historical background, political situation, protection issues, international response, statistics, graphs, maps, sources used with links to sources. From the Norwegian Refugee Council. Based in Geneva, Switzerland.

International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. The Responsibility to Protect
Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. Co-chairs were Gareth Evans and Mohamed Sahnoun. Full text. (Pub. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 2001. 110 p. plus cd-rom) "The report's central theme is "The Responsibility to Protect", the idea that sovereign states have a responsibility to protect their own citizens from avoidable catastrophe, but that when they are unwilling or unable to do so, that responsibility must be borne by the broader community of states." Commission was established partly in response to the genocide in Rwanda.

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (Arusha, Tanzania)
Official site. Biographies of judges, press releases, full text judgments, annual reports, transcripts, photographs,  U.N.Radio broadcasts (need sound card, RealPlayer), etc. This United Nations tribunal  handed down "the first-ever verdict on the crime of genocide by an international court" and imposed the "first-ever sentence for genocide."

International Crisis Group - Rwanda
ICG is "a private, multinational organisation committed to strengthening the capacity of the international community to anticipate, understand and act to prevent and contain conflict." full text reports on Central Africa (Burundi, the DRC, Rwanda). Based in Brussels, Belgium.

International Documentation Network on the Great African Lakes Region / Réseau Documentaire International sur la Région des Grands Lacs Africains
Site has closed. In English and French. International inter-university program (based in Geneva, Switzerland) to collect "grey literature" on the economic, social, and political aspects of Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda,  Tanzania, and Congo-Kinshasa. The documents, on cd-rom, are sold thru subscription. 

International Rescue Committee
(New York, N.Y.) An NGO which "...helps people fleeing racial, religious and ethnic persecution, as well as those uprooted by war and violence." Describes their work in Eastern Africa, the Great Lakes region, West Africa. Has Mortality studies for the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 2000 to 2008.

The International Response to Conflict and Genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda Experience
The full-text report (1996) by the Steering Committee of the Joint Evalutation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda, an international effort. The contents are: Historical Perspective: Some Explanatory Factors, Early Warning and Conflict Management, Humanitarian Aid and Effects, Rebuilding Post-War Rwanda, Synthesis Report. The International Response.

An international media development organization. Produced films on Rwanda. Use the Search box to find other Rwanda information. Based in Arcata, California.

Isaro: a Rwandan Culture Website
In French and English. Rwandan cultural site. Events, directory of Rwanda artists / cultural organizations. Site owned by PlanB Inc. based in Belgium.

Journal of Humanitarian Assistance
Free e-journal based at the University of Bradford, Bradford, U.K. Full text articles on Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire. Also articles on Somalia, Uganda, Tanzania, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. Click on Archives and then the word Rwanda in the "word cloud".

Keepers of Memory Documentary film, by Eric Kabera, on the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. "Through eyewitness accounts...Kabera takes the viewer on an emotional journey into the lives of the survivors and their work to preserve the memorials honoring the slain victims. The film focuses on the "keepers" of 6 main massacre sites and explores how Rwandans use the memorials to make peace with the past and sustain hope for the future." Produced by Link Media Production, Kigali, Rwanda. Sold on DVD by Amazon and by Choices, Inc. Film Fest Journal has a review.

Kigali Institute of Education Journal
(Kigali, Rwanda) In French and English. Published at the Kigali Institute of Education, Kigali, Rwanda. Full text articles on-line.

Examples of articles - Vers une nouvelle approche de préparation et de planification des activités d'enseignement et d'apprentissage dans l’enseignement supérieur et universitaire, by Wenceslas NZABALIRWA; CULTURE SHOCK IN A FOREIGN LAND: RWANDAN EXPERIENCE, by Peter A Odera.

Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management
"Born on November 1st 1997, officially inaugurated in April 1998..." Campus news, the Rector's Presentations, Graduation speeches, the Library, photographs (including Pres. Bill Clinton's visit), Based in Kigali.

Kigali Public Library
"Rwanda's First Public Library" Initiated in 2000 by the Rotary Club of Kigali-Virunga, Rwanda. Support from American Friends of the Kigali Public Library (AFKPL), in Washington, DC, and Marshall Scholars for the Kigali Public Library (MSKPL). Based in Kigali.

See an article about the Kigali Public Library at - Kaufman, Zachary D., Social Entrepreneurship in a Post-Genocide Society: Building Rwanda’s First Public Library, the Kigali Public Library (2012). SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE AGE OF ATROCITIES: CHANGING OUR WORLD, pp. 58-82, Zachary D. Kaufman, ed., Edward Elgar Publishing., 2012. Available at SSRN:

Lemarchand (Rene) Collection
A detailed guide to the Rene Lemarchand Collection on Burundi, Chad, Congo-Kinshasa, Gabon, and Rwanda at the University of Florida Africana Library, was prepared by Dr. Dan Reboussin.

Libraries Without Borders
"...a non-profit, non-partisan organization based in New York City...registered in California. Our mission is to support education in developing and disaster-stricken areas by providing...access to well-equipped, up-to-date and efficient public libraries." Supports the Kigali Public Library, Rwanda's first public library.

Magnarella Paul, "Is U.S. Cooperation with the U.N. Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Unconstitutional?"
Article (5 pages) from the electronic quarterly, African Studies Quarterly, (Vol. 1, No. 4) produced by the University of Florida, African Studies Center.

MEASURE DHS + - Demographic and Health Surveys
"data to monitor and evaluate population, health, and nutrition programs." Datasets for African countries. Use the Publications search to find many full text reports on Rwanda populations, health, HIV/AIDS, Rwanda statistics on female education, child health, profile of the education system. Types of information includes Characteristics of Households, Fertility, Fertility Regulation, Fertility Preferences, Early Childhood Mortality, Maternal and Child Health, Maternal and Child Nutrition, Aids and Other STD's. Allows registered users to build custom tables from hundreds of surveys and indicators. DHS + is owned by Macro International (Calverton, Maryland).

Michigan State. Rwanda Food Security Research Rroject
Many full text reports (agriculture, health, mortality, nutrition, agricultural statistics). Includes M.A. and Ph.D. theses.

Example -Laurent, Munyankusi - Participation des organisations paysannes aux innovations agricoles et au developpement rural au Rwanda: cas de l’Impuyaki. Memoire, 2001. Full text in PDF. 153 p. M.S. Thesis submitted to the National University of Rwanda. On the site of Michigan State University. Dept. of Agricultural Economics. Rwanda Food Security Research Project.

Minority Rights Group International (London)
Has a Horn of Africa Programme, publications, a newsletter, Outsider, with an article on the Batwa of Rwanda, a Rwanda Overview, etc. Use the Search to find other items.

Morrill, Constance F. - Reconciliation and the Gacaca: The Perceptions and Peace-Building Potential of Rwandan Youth Detainees
67 p. in PDF. "The purpose of this report is to provide interested readers, including scholars, government officials, policymakers, NGO representatives and students with original research that uncovers the personal experiences and concerns of a handful of young Rwandan detainees who willingly shared strong feelings not only about their personal fates and frustrations, but intelligent observations and opinions about the Gacaca jurisdictions and the prospects for reconciliation in the country." An article posted at The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution, Fall 2004, Issue 6.1.

"...the finest and truest film yet on the moral and emotional repercussions of the 15-year-old genocide that wracked Rwanda" - Variety review, May 25, 2007. Directed by Lee Isaac Chung. Distributed by Almond Tree Films, LLC. The first feature film in Kinyaranda. Shown at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival in the Un Certain Regard category.

New York Times review
, March 23, 2008
Wellington Film Festival description, July-Aug. 2008
Toronto Human Rights Watch Film Festival 2010

Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale/Royal Museum for Central Africa
Site of the well-known museum in Tervuren, Belgium.  Information on programs, exhibitions, publications, their Metafro InfoSys, "an on-line Web-based information system about the Belgian data resources related to Central Africa, including Angola, Burundi and Rwanda."

National Electoral Commission of Rwanda / Komisiyo y'Igihugu y'amatora
In Kinyarwanda, English, French. Election results, number of voters. Documents, resolutions, photographs. Based in Kigali, Rwanda.

National Film Board of Canada
Distributes 5 films, part of a Rwanda series, which includes Sitting on a Volcano, Hand of God, Hand of the Devil, Chronicle of a Genocide Foretold - Part 1: Blood Was Flowing Like a...., Chronicle of a Genocide Foretold - Part 2: We Were Cowards, Chronicle of a Genocide Foretold - Part 3: We Feel Betrayed.

National Museum of Rwanda
In English and Kinyarwanda. Has online issues of its newsletter, iKambere.

National Security Archive. The U.S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994
Primary documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act.

National Security Archive (George Washington University) - The U.S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994, Evidence of Inaction
A National Security Archive Briefing Book, edited by William Ferroggiaro, August 20, 2001. Full text of sixteen declassified US government documents [in Adobe PDF] 'detailing how US policymakers chose to be 'bystanders' during the genocide that decimated Rwanda in 1994."

Nightline - Ted Koppel - "Broken Soldier: A Peacekeeper's Nightmare"
Full text of the Feb. 7, 2001 television interview of General Romeo d'Allaire, by Ted Koppel. Includes why the U.S. did not intervene - reproduced on the Sudan Watch Web site

In French and Kinyarwanda, some English. Commentary on the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. "Ce site est dédié à la mémoire de ma famille, de mes amis et de tous les martyrs de l'apocalypse du Rwanda de 1994." Maintained by Arthémon Rurangwa.

Observatoire de l'Afrique Centrale
In French. News on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, Rwanda. Includes articles on the situation of pygmies. Based in Montreal, Canada.

Office Rwandais d'Information, ORINFOR
In French and Kinyarwanda. Rwanda government information office. Information on Television Rwanda, the government newspapers, Imvaho Nshya, La Nouvelle Releve, Based in Kigali.

Organization of African Unity. Iternational Panel of Eminent Personalities to Investigate the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda and the Surrounding Events Full text of the report (293 pages), biographies, speeches, in pdf and in Word doc. The report calls for reparations by countries (U.S., France, Belgium) which ignored the genocide and criticizes the role of Catholic and Anglican churches. Chair: Sir Ketumile Masire (Botswana's former President). Members included General Amadou Toumani Tour? (former Mali head of state), Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (former Liberian government minister), Stephen Lewis (former Canada's Permanent Representative to the U.N.). On the Suggsted Reading section of the Remembering Rwanda web site.

See also article in Africa Recovery "OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda gsenocide"

Parti Social Démocrate - Social Democratic Party, PSD
In Kinyarwanda, French, some English. Political party. Its presidential candidate in the August 2010 election is the Deputy Speaker of Parliament, Dr Jean Damascene Ntawukuriryayo.

PBS - Worse than War
Film based on the book, Worse than War, by Daniel Jonah Goldhagen. Study guide. Countries covered - Rwanda.

Penal Reform International
(London) In English and  French. Discusses juvenile justice, criminal justice system, health in prisons, Gacaca (Rwanda), death penalty, community service alternatives. Has organized projects in more than 20 African countries. Full text reports, on-line films, and issues of their PRI Newsletter.

Peress, Gilles - Images, Reality, and the Curse of History
1997 interview with Peress, a photographer in Rwanda and Bosnia, author of the book, The Silence, (New York, 1995) on the 1994 genocide. Includes a chat with middle school students. Part of the Conversations with History series from the Univ. of California, Berkeley, Institute of International Studies.

Pomfret, John - Covering Human Rights
1997 interview with Pomfret, a foreign correspondent for the Washington Post. Covers reporting about Congo (Kinshasa) and Rwanda. Part of the Conversations with History series from the Institute of International Studies, Univ. of California, Berkeley.

Pontzeele, Sophie - Burundi 1972 / Rwanda 1994 : l' « efficacité » dramatique d'une reconstruction idéologique du passé par la presse.
In French. Th. doct. : Changement social : Lille 1 : 2004. Lille (France) : USTL, 2004. - 529 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille - Résumé. - Bibliogr. : p. 418-426.

Full text of the doctoral thesis. 529 pages, in PDF.

Power, Samantha - Bystanders to Genocide. Why the United States Let the Rwandan Tragedy Happen
"The author's exclusive interviews with scores of the participants in the decision-making, together with her analysis of newly declassified documents, yield a chilling narrative of self-serving caution and flaccid will—and countless missed opportunities to mitigate a colossal crime." On-line article in The Atlantic Monthly, September 2001.

Prunier, Gerard - Burundi: Descent into Chaos or a Manageable Crisis?
33 page paper on the history of Burundi from 1850 to the early 1990s. A WHITENET country paper on the UN High Commission for Refugees web site. For other UNHCR reports use the Search.,WRITENET,,BDI,3ae6a6c00,0.html

Public Broadcasting Corporation - Africa
Has transcripts of broadcasts on Rwanda. For those with sound cards has a RealAudio version as well. The site has a keyword search facility.

Ralliement pour l'Unité et la Démocratie / Rally for Unity and Democracy (RUD-Urunana)
"...a Politico-Military Party opposed to the Paul Kagame government. Its President is Professor Jean Marie Vianney Higiro and the Secretary General is Dr. Felicien Kanyamibwa, both residing in USA. The spokesperson is Dr. Augustine Dukuze who is in Canada. The fighters and military commanders are based in and around Rwanda. It has recently allied itself with a new politico-military party, the Rally for the Rwandan People (RPR) formed by former Rwandan Patrioric Army officers and based inside Rwanda. RPR spokesperson is Commander David Sano."

Rassemblement Républicain pour la Démocratie au Rwanda
(Bonn, Germany Branch)In English, German and French. "Die RDR ist eine politische Organisation, die sich f?r eine pluralistische Demokratie und f?r die strenge Beachtung der Grundrechte in Ruanda einsetzt." Has issues online of their bulletin, Forum Rwandaise. Office in the Netherlands. Branch based in Bonn, Germany.

Refugees International
The organization, founded in 1979, serves as an advocate for refugees. Conducts emergency missions, is privately funded. Information on Burundi, Rwanda, food shortages in Central Africa.

Remembering Rwanda. The Rwanda 10th Anniversary Memorial Project
In English and French. "The year 2004 will mark a decade since the Rwandan genocide of April-July 1994." Historical chronology from 1896, directory of commemorative events world-wide, photographs of the trials, orphans, a memorial, extensive documents in the Suggested Readings. Project coordinated by Dr. Gerald Caplan, Carole Ann Reed, and Louise Mushikiwabo. On the web site of Vision TV a non-profit Canadian cable TV station.

Reporters Without Borders / Reporters sans frontiéres - Rwanda
Use the Search to find reports on the Situation of Rwanda journalists and press freedom. Based in Paris, France.

RUGO, Rwanda United Kingdom Goodwill Organisation
Provides education, training for Rwanda.

Rutagarama, Eugene - Goldman Environmental Prize 2001
Mr. Rutagara "risked his life and reached out across ethnic and political boundaries to preserve precious habitat for [Rwanda's Volcano National Park's] 355 mountain gorillas, about half the number remaining worldwide." The Goldman Prize, the world's largest prize program honoring grassroots environmentalists, is based in San Francisco, CA.

Rwanda 1994 Genocide
In French. A history of Rwanda and the 1994 genocide. Includes a chronologie. Maintained by Michel Ognier.

Rwanda 2000
In French. Contains full text letters, analyses, memos, journal articles, reports (by Filip Reyntjens, Professeur aux Universités d'Anvers et de Bruxelles, etc). Has publications of the UFDR, Union des Forces Democratiques Rwandaises, which is opposed to the present Rwanda government, and a discussion forum in French and Kinyarwanda. Maintained by R. Monfort.

Rwanda Cinema Center
"...created to facilitate through film and video production, delivery of informative entertaining and educative content; to explore a wide spectrum of issues and raise awareness on local and global development
agendas;...." Sponsored the first Rwanda Film Festival. Facilitated production of the Rwandan films, 100 DAYS and Keepers of Memory. See also the Rwanda Film Institute. Based in Kigali, Rwanda.

Rwanda Commemoration Project: Genocide in Our Time
Site from the American University, Washington College of Law, Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law. Has a resource booklet, with programming ideas, substantive issues of discussion, and a resource list (including web sites) for those wishing to hold commemorations.

Rwanda. Commission Juridique et Constitutionnelle
In French, English, Kinyarwanda. Has 19 Juin 2003 : La Version Finale du Projet de Constitution de la République du Rwanda (also in English. See Latest News link).

Rwanda. Commission nationale independante chargee de faire la lumiere sur le role de la France dans le genocide des Tutsi de 1994
Independent National Commission responsible for collection of evidence indicating the role of the French State in the genocide against the Tutsi that was perpetrated in Rwanda in 1994. In French. Report and Annexes. 15 novembre 2007. On the Rwanda Ministry of Justice site.

Report (without Annexes) 337 pages in PDF.

In English. Communique on the Report. 13 pages in PDF (Justice Ministry site) and PDF (government site)
In French. Communique du rapport. 13 pages in PDF (Justice Ministry site) and PDF (government site)

Rwanda Development Gateway
In English, French, Kinyarwanda. Facts about all aspects of Rwanda, map, database of NGOs. Has the draft document on the May 2005 National Conference on Science, Technology, Scientific Research and Innovation at UNR-Butare, in PDF (79 pages). Based in Butare, Rwanda.

Rwanda. Embassy. United Kingdom
Gerneral information about Rwanda, the Embassy's newsletter, tourism, investment information, visas, etc.

Rwanda. Embassy. United States
Government, country information including a history, visa and travel information, etc.

Rwanda. Government
Official site. Government news, press releases (January 10, 2002 ICT development plan launched, etc.), the President's speeches, biography, country history, etc. Based in Kigali, Rwanda.

Rwanda Information Exchange
In English and French. "...information on Rwanda from various sources including communications from Governments, NGO's and Friends of Rwanda, as well as from individuals interested in Rwanda." News, sports relating to Rwanda. "an independent site created in New York in 1995...a window into Rwanda and other countries of the Great Lakes Region."

Rwanda Information Technology Authority, RITA
Think tank to advise the Rwanda Government on ICT policies. Will eventually manage the Rwanda country top level domain; (see also Domaine Name Registration). Full text documents such as An Integrated ICT- led Socio - Economic Development Plan for Rwanda 2006-2010. The NICI-2010 Plan Table. Based in Kigali, Rwanda.

Rwanda Institute for Conservation Agriculture
Higher education institute in Rwanda, that specializes in conservation agriculture and One Health principles. Based in Gashora – Bugesera District, Rwanda.

Rwanda Investment Promotion Agency
Official site.

Rwanda. Ministere de l'Education - Etude du Secteur de l'Education au Rwanda 259 pages in PDF. Includes a map. On the web site of UNESCO Documents and Publications.

Rwanda. Ministry of Education, Science, Technology and Scientific Research / Ministère de l’Education, de la Science , de la Technologie et de la Recherche Scientifique
In French, English, Kinyarwanda. Official site. Includes education statistics, Ministry news, speeches, full text documents (such as the Education for All Plan of Action).

Rwanda. Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning
Online budgets, consumer price indices, information for investors, poverty reduction strategy, etc.

Rwanda. Ministry of Justice
In English, French, Kinyarwanda.

Rwanda. Ministry of Local Government, Good Governance, Community Development and Social Affairs
In English, French, Kinyarwanda. Has full text documents.

Rwanda National Congress, RNC
Opposition group created 2010. Based in Washington, D.C.

Rwanda. National Institute of Statistics
Full text reports - district profiles, thematic reports, price indexes, trade, health, social-economic indicators, microdata, 2002 census, surveys, etc. Based in Kigali, Rwanda.

Rwanda. Office de l'Auditeur Général des Finances de l'Etat
In French, English, Kinyarwanda. Full text of the Annual Reports. Based in Kigali.

Rwanda. Office Rwandais des Recettes / Rwanda Revenue Authority
In English and French. "The Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA) is a quasi-autonomous central body charged with the tasks of assessment, collection and accounting for tax, customs and other specified revenues, and for administering and enforcing the laws relating to those revenues." Has a list of large tax payers, the Vat Guide, import duty, the Corporate Plan etc.

Rwanda. Parliament
In English, French, Kinyarwanda. Created November 25,1994, members are from "political parties which did not participate in the genocide: RPF, MDR, PDC, PDI, PL, PSD, PSR, UDPR and representatives of the Rwandese Patriotic Army." Information on Assembly Members, legislative procedures, summary of proceedings, the Agenda, contact information for Assembly officers, full text of the 2003 Constitution (in three languages).

Discussion on Rwanda. To subscribe, send e-mail to:
In the message area, put: subscribe rwandanet YourFirstName YourLastName

In French. Hosts Rwanda Liberation - an independent monthly from Kigali. Has news on Rwanda, how to count in Kinyarwanda, documents (articles from Rwanda Liberation on labor, the number killed, by commune, in the 1994 genocide, excerpts from the French National Assembly Mission d'information sur le Rwanda report), children's corner (puzzles, story in French).  Maintained by Jean-Luc Chavanieux.

Rwanda Online
Travel information. The site owner is Multiart GmbH, Markus Stark, Solothurn, Switzerland.

Rwanda Rugali
In French and Kinyarwanda. Political cartoons, news on health, politics, genocide, justice, the press, the Rwanda diaspora.

Rwanda Rugari
In French and Kinyarwanda. Political cartoons.

RwandaTel S.A.
The telecommunications and internet service provider in Rwanda.

Rwanda. Tourism
Official site. Tourist attractions, tour operators, hotels, articles (such as on mountain gorillas), photographs, links to other Rwanda sites. Web site based in Switzerland.

Rwanda Web Ring
In French. Web sites about Rwanda.

Samputu's World
In French. Site of Rwandan musician, Jean 'Paul Samputu, winner of the 2003 Kora Award for the Most Promising African Male Artist. Biography, discography. Based in Namur, Belgium.

Sehene, Benjamin
In French. Site for the writer who "had to flee Rwanda [in 1963], went to school in Uganda, then to Europe." Biography, photographs. A bibliography of books and films on Rwanda with comments by Sehene. A historical chronology to 1994.

Shake Hands with the Devil
Film named for Roméo Dallaire's book. About his first return trip to Rwanda, in April 2004 - the 10th anniversary of the genocide. Won an Audience Award at the Sundance Film Festival. See also California Newsreel.

Human Rights Watch 2005 Film Festival -
Interview with HBO executive Sam Martin -
South Africa's News 24 -,,2-11-1447_1493943,00.html
Internet Movie Database -

Survivors Fund (SURF)
"...a UK based charity (NGO) registered with the Charities Commission for England and Wales, Charity No. 1605705, working exclusively to support survivors of the genocide in Rwanda, both here and in Rwanda." Brief history of Rwanda and the genocide, description of projects, survivor testimonies. Based in London.

Swiss Peace. FAST Early Warning System - Rwanda
Has risk assessment, conflict analysis reports by René Lemarchand. Reports are c. 7-9 pages, in Adobe pdf. Swiss Peace is a peace research institute founded in 1988. "FAST aims at enhancing the political decision makers' ability to identify critical developments in a timely manner [to]...prevent or limit destructive effects of violent conflict..."

Rwanda telecom provider (internet service, phone, TV programs). "We are the first country in Africa to implement a Passive Optical Fiber Network." Are "...providing over 400 secondary schools in Rwanda with high speed (300k+) internet access and phone service." Facilitates e-government. Based in Rwanda.

Through the Eyes of Children. The Rwanda Project
"began as a photographic workshop in 2000, conceived by photographer, David Jiranek, and inspired by the founder of the Imbabazi Orphanage, Rosamond Carr - an American woman living in Rwanda for over 50 years. Using disposable cameras, the children originally took pictures for themselves and to share with others..." Biographies of each of the "photographer" children, articles on the project.. Purchase individual prints or a set of 13; sales assist the children.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook - Rwanda
Has a map, information on geography, people, government, economy, transportation, communication, defense.

U.S. Department of State. Report on Human Rights Practices - Rwanda
2015 Report, 2011 Report, 2010 Report, 2009 Report, 2008 Report, 2007 Report, 2006 Report, 2005 Report, 2004 Report, 2003 Report, 2002 Report, 2001 Report, 2000 Report, 1999 Report, 1998 Report, 1997 Report, 1996 Report, 1995, 1994, 1993:

United States. Embassy. Rwanda
(Kigali) Profile of the U.S. Ambassador, public hoSeelidays, Rwanda - Consular Information Sheet (information to travelers to Rwanda), Rwanda response regarding Sept. 11, etc. Holidays observed.

Universite Libre de Kigali
In French and English. "Kigali Independent University is a higher institution of learning...created on 15th March, 1996 by the Rwandan Association for the Promotion of Education and Culture (ARPEC)." It has three faculties - The Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management,.The Faculty of Social Sciences with 3 departments (Sociology, Administration, Demography), and the Faculty of Law. "ULK has recently been accepted by the ''Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie'' (AUF) as a full member (with all rights)."

University of Global Health Equity 
Founded  with support from  Partners In Health, the Cummings Foundation [], the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Rwanda Government. Based in Kigali, Rwanda.

University of Pennsylvania Rwanda Page
U.S. C.I.A maps, embassies, travel, language information, etc. Created by Julie Sisskind, now maintained by Ali Dinar. UPenn's vast African studies web site now has a keyword search engine.
Rwanda Page:

University of Rwanda
Based in Kigali.

University of Southern California. Shoah Foundation - Visual History Archive [Rwanda]
Requires an institutional subscription to use the Visual History Archive. "...indexed testimonies of 65 survivors and rescuers of the 1994 Rwandan Tutsi Genocide." Testimonies were conducted by the USC Shoah Foundation, the Aegis Trust and the Kigali Genocide Memorial. Interviews were conducted between 2004 and 2011. Has English subtitles for the testimonies which were conducted in Kinyarwanda. Testimonies from Kizito Kalima, Freddy Mutanguha, and others. Part of the larger Holocaust survivors video archive.

Volcanoes in Africa
Has photos of volcanoes in Rwanda, and other countries. Each entry has references to articles. One can search issues of the Bulletin of Volcanology by keyword. Located on the Volcano World site which is designed to distribute remote sensing data to non-technical users.
African volcanoes:
Volcano World:

Washington Office on Africa / Africa Policy Information Center
The Washington Office on Africa, Africa Policy Information Center a non-profit advocacy organization, has reports from 1995-1997 on Rwanda. There is a keyword search facility. They have a mailing list or reports covering the continent. To get on their mailing list write to:
Articles on Rwandan politics originally published in the Danish publication, Aktuelt, by free-lance journalists, Gunnar Willum and Bjorn Willum. [Site likes to set cookies.]

Witness to Genocide: Children of Rwanda. Edited by Richard A. Salem
(New York : Friendship Press, c2000. 48 pages. Foreword by Hillary Rodham Clinton.) One page on the book which "tells the story of the 1994 Rwanda genocide through drawings by its child survivors."

Women Waging Peace
(Cambridge, Massachusetts) "Women Waging Peace advocates for the full participation of women in formal and informal peace processes around the world." See the Africa section with case studies: From Combat to Community: Women and Girls of Sierra Leone and Strengthening Governance: The Role of Women in Rwanda's Transition. Profiles of African Women Peace Builders. Other reports: Policy Commission Case Study—Negotiating the Transition to Democracy and Reforming the Security Sector: Vital Contributions of South African Women. Directory of African Women's peace building organizations.

Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children
(New York, NY) Their Fall 2000 Newsletter has articles on the Lord Resistance Army (Uganda) and on Burundi. They issue press releases (Burundi, Uganda), have an online slideshow from a 2000 Rwanda Delegation Trip.

Has full text reports:
Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Conflict and Displacement in Burundi (in Adobe PDF, 52 p. Oct. 2000)
A Child's Nightmare: Burundian Children at Risk. Report of Women's Commission delegation visit to Burundi/Tanzania border camp to investigate the situation for refugee children. (February 1998)
Rebuilding Rwanda: A Struggle Men Can Not Do Alone (in Adobe PDF, Jan. 2000)
Rwanda's Women and Children: The Long Road to Reconciliation (Sept. 1997)