Somalia and Somalilalnd

See also: Somalia news

[Abdullahie] Abdimalik Abdullahie
Twitter of an independent researcher on Somalia and Horn of Africa affairs. Based in Mogadishu, Somalia.

Adam, Hussein and Richard Ford, et. al. "Removing Barricades in Somalia: Options for Peace and Rehabilitation"
U.S. Institute of Peace (Washington, D.C.) Peaceworks, No. 24, October 1998. 40 pages in PDF.

African Studies Library, Leiden - Somali Literature
By Dr. Annachiara Raia. Essay and selected titles and web resources from the African Studies Library, Leiden, The Netherlands.
In Somali. Puntland's President is Colonel Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed. Based in Albertslund, Denmark.

Ambassador Hotel (Hargeisa, Somaliland)
Luxury hotel with 45 rooms and 11 villas.

American Diplomacy
Electronic journal published with the cooperation of the Triangle Institute for Security Studies (T.I.S.S.) based at the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill. Has articles such as"Safirka, Envoy to Somalia" by Peter Bridges. html

American Friends Service Committee (Quakers)
Has office in Africa including Somalia. Based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

American Refugee Committee
Programs in Liberia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda.

Amoud University (Borama, Awdal, Somalia)
"the first higher education of its kind in post-civil war in Somalia." Launched in 1998 and is registered as a non-governmental, non-profit making institution.

Amsas Management Consulting Pty Ltd.
Consulting firm on investment risks, political risks. Also Public Relations, Project Management, financial Management. Operates in Somalia, Sudan, Kenya, and other African countries. The owner is Dr.Ali Abdullahi. Based in Victoria, Australia. [KF]

Aragti Qaran
in Somali.
In Somali and English. Has current news, business and sports news, history articles, the Maay langauge, human rights abuses, many links to Somalia sites. Emphasis is on "southern Somali history, language and political view." Examples of history articles are - "Somali history" by Mohamed Haji Mukhtar, "Baidoa Diary: The political events surrounding the occupation and liberation of the Somalia city of Baidoa since 1995," by Mohamed Aden Farkeeti, "Building Peace From Below? A Critical Review of the District Councils in the Bay and Bakool Regions of Southern Somalia. A preliminary report" by the late Bernhard Helander in cooperation with Mohamed Haji Mukhtar and I. M. Lewis, a "Chronology of Digil & Mirifle History of Somalia," by Mohamed Aden Ibrahim (Farkeeti), "The Emergence and Role of Political Parties in the Inter-River Region of Somalia from 1947 to 1960 (Independence)" by Mohamed H. Mukhtar, and other essays.

In English and Somali. News on Somalia from various sources, radio news (in Somali, requires Real Player, sound card), links to Somali related sites (the Somali press, businesses), etc. Based in Windsor, Canada.

Blackhawk Down - By Mark Bowden
Extensive account of the Battle of Mogadishu October 3, 1993. Background to the events, material from classified military video tapes and documents and from military radio transmissions. Audio interviews for those with sound cards/speakers. There are comments to the reporter, Mark Bowden, from the public such as on military technical details, etc. From the book "Black Hawk down : a story of modern war." (New York : Atlantic Monthly Press, c1999. 386 p.) Bowden's book was a nonfiction finalist in the 1999 National Book Awards. Includes a short video clip from a PBS documentary, Somalia: Good Intentions, Deadly Results. Produced by the Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper.

Mark Bowden talks about his series and the website for Nieman Reports (The Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University) , Vol. 54 No. 3 Fall 2000.

Bush, George - Address to Troops in Somalia
The History Channel provides a very brief audio file of Bush's Jan. 1, 1993 address to U.S. troops in Somalia. See the Speeche Archive section. You'll need Real Player, sound card, and speakers.

Canada. Dept. of Foreign Affairs & International Trade. Travel Information & Advisory Reports
Travel advisories, health conditions, reports for Somalia.

Canada. Ministry of National Defence. Commission of Inquiry the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia
Full text of the Report. "During the deployment of Canadian troops, events transpired in Somalia that impugned the reputations of individuals, Canada's military and, indeed, the nation itself. Those events, some of them by now well known to most Canadians, included the shooting of Somali intruders at the Canadian compound in Belet Huen, the beating death of a teenager in the custody of soldiers from 2 Commando of the Canadian Airborne Regiment (CAR), an apparent suicide attempt by one of these Canadian soldiers,...." The printed report, "Dishonoured Legacy: The Lessons of the Somalia Affair" is published and sold at a cost of $125.00 (5 volumes + summary) by the Canada Communications Group, at 45 Sacré-Coeur Boulevard, Hull, Quebec, K1A 0S7. Bookstore phone number: (819) 956-4802. Catalogue number for the publication is CP32--66/1997.

Care International - Somalia
Brief information on CARE's work in Somalia. Includes basic statistics from The State of the World's Children (pub. by UNICEF).

Carter Center
Brief information on the Carter Center and Somalia.

Cato Institute
Public policy institute, supports "limited government, free markets, individual liberty, and peace". Has a short report, Setting a Dangerous Precedent in Somalia, by Ted G. Carpenter (Foreign Policy Briefing No. 20, 1992) and The Somali Crisis: Time for an African Solution, by George Ayittey (Policy Analysis No. 205, 1994).

Center for Research Libraries - Official Gazettes & Civil Society Documentation 
Digitized issues of government official gazettes from Algeria, Congo (Brazzaville), Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia (includes British Somaliland) , Sudan, and Zimbabwe (includes Southern Rhodesia).

Center for Somali Peace and Justice
Social and economic justice issues in Somalia and Somaliland.

Chu, Jenny - Images of Africa
Photographs from Angola, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sierra Leone and Somalia taken in 2002 on relief activities of the International Medical Corps. The IMC site has additional photographs.

Clandestine Radio Intel Web
A directory with radio frequencies of rebel, clandestine radio stations in Africa and elsewhere. Has a Nov. 2000 report on "Somalia: Militia Radio Stations Remain Clandestine" which includes a directory of radio stations. Has a directory of inactive radio stations. Use the Search from to locate other Somalia related items.

Clarke, Walter Sheldon - Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia
A bibliography. The main page is the index (24 p.) for the bibliography. Click on the letter of the alphabet to find the full citation. Has some typos (Alpters instead of Alpers). Clarke was Deputy Director of the U.S. Liaison Office in Mogadishu, 1993, Charge d'Affaires at the U.S. Embassy, Djibouti, and a former Senior Foreign Service Officer. On the site of George Mason University, School of Public Policy, Program on Peacekeeping Policy.

Codka Somali - Galbeed Online
In English and Somali. The Voice of Somaligalbeed, International Information Center, London. About a Somali National Regional State in Ethiopia, includes map showing area of Ogadenia. Information from the Somali Zone Human Rights Group, in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia and the Somali Zone News Review.

Cold War International History Project
Established at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (Washington, D.C.), supports the release of historical materials by governments, seeks to disseminate new perspectives on Cold War history.
Full text documents include -
Anatomy of a Third World Cold War Crisis: New East-bloc Evidence on the Horn of Africa, 1977-1978
The Horn, the Cold War, and New Documents from the Former East-bloc: An Ethiopian View, by Ermias Abebe Moscow, Mengistu, and the Horn, by Paul B. Henze East Germany and the Horn Crisis: Documents on SED Afrikapolitik, by Christian F. Ostermann Russian and East German Documents on the Horn of Africa, 1977-1978

Committee to Protect Journalists
Based in New York city, is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization. Has a report on Somalia. Use their keyword search facility to locate other reports.

Conciliation Resources (Lancaster House, London)
CR is a service for conflict resolution and prevention with a program on Somaliland. It's Occasional Papers series includes a Report on Peace-Making Initiative in Somaliland, April 1995-January 1997.

Coral Reefs - Action Atlas
Site by Mother Jones magazine and the Coral Reef Alliance in Berkeley, California on endangered coral reefs in Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Comoros, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mauritius, and Reunion.
Main page:
African coral reefs:

Council on Foreign Relations - Somalia's Terrorist Infestation
By Eben Kaplan. Pub. June 6, 2006. 'The Council is an independent membership organization and a nonpartisan think tank and publisher, with headquarters in New York,......It has no affiliation with the U.S. government or any other government."

Cultural Orientation - Somali Bantu
On the "people, history and cultures of the Somali Bantu.....designed primarily for service providers and others assisting Somali Bantu refugees in their new communities in the United States." Includes a bibliography, resettlement challenges, a language glossary. The principle writers are Daniel Van Lehman and Omar Eno. From the Cultural Orientation Resource Center, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC.

Cultural Orientation - Somalis, Their History and Culture
Information on the people, land, economy, history, society, education, values, religion, art, food, festivities, names, language. Has a glossary, bibliography. From the Cultural Orientation Resource Center, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, D.C.

Daallo Airlines
Private-sector airline operating in in Somaliland, Somalia, and Djibouti. Established in Djibouti in March 1991 with executive offices in Dubai - U.A.E.

Company handling payments to Somaliland. " transfer company serving migrants from the Horn of Africa. With 75 agents in the UK and more than 200 payout locations in the Horn of Africa, ..." Dahabshiil Transfer Services Ltd. is based in London, U.K.

Danish Institute for International Studies - Sub-saharan Africa
Has reports re covid and Somaliland such as "Tech and Trust Challenges : Emerging Trends in Somaliland Diaspora Response to Covid-19" and "How will COVID-19 affect remittances in Somalia?"

Davies, Rick - Mogadishu Images from the Past
"A cartographic and photographic record of Mogadishu, Somalia, from the late 18th century to 1990. This page has been created and maintained by Rick Davies (Ph.D.), a resident of the city in the 1980s." Photographs, drawings, maps with commentary and background. Dr. Davies, an Australian, is a Monitoring and Evaluation consultant in Cambridge, U.K. See related web sites.

Democracy Now - Is the U.S. Government Fueling Civil War in Somalia?
Includes interviews, May 18th, 2006, (transcript, video, audio) with Omar Jamal, Executive Director of the Somali Justice Advocacy Center in St Paul, Minnestoa and Ted Dagne, Africa Specialist at the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Democracy Now is a radio and TV program.

De Waal, Alex
Articles on the Horn of Africa, Somalia, Sudan by De Waal, fellow of the Global Equity Initiative at Harvard University, and programme director at the Social Science Research Council in New York.

Digital Dialects
Interactive activities for learning languages. Learn Somali through interactive games. Learning games also in Afrikaans, Arabic, Swahili.

[Dirie] Readers' Digest - "Desert Flower" - Waris Dirie and Cathleen Miller
Excerpt from the book, "Desert Flower," by Somali fashion model, Waris Dirie, Special Ambassador for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation for the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Includes links on FGM.

Djibnet, Nomad's Land
In French. Extensive annotated directory on all aspects of Djibouti, Somalia. Has a discussion forum. Based in Villejuif, France.

Dowhel: Somali & East African Market Online & Business Directory
In Somali. Classified ads - homes for sale, cars, employment, personals, yellow pages, and import & export information. Images of Somali money.

East Africa University
The University is located in Puntland, a self-declared semi-autonomous region of Somalia.

Edna Adan Maternity Hospital (Hargeisa, Somaliland)
A non-profit community hospital for the Republic of Somaliland. "The idea of building the Edna Adan Maternity Hospital was conceived because Somali women and children have the highest maternal and child mortality rate in the world." Has a nursing school. Includes photographs.

See also -Edna Maternity Hospital (Hargeisa, Somaliland) "The new hospital was conceived by Edna Adan Ismail, a former World Health Organization representative in Djibouti, who is the principal donor." The project seeks to train Somalis as nurses and midwives. Has project document, board of trustees list, etc.

Electoral Institute of Southern Africa. Report on the South African Mission on the Somaliland Presidential Elections
From the South African Observation Mission to Somaliland in April 2003. EISA is a Johannesburg, South Africa based non-profit whose "mission is to strengthen electoral processes, good governance, human rights and democratic values...".

Encyclopaedia Aethiopica
Edited by Siegbert Uhlig. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2003 - ISBN: 3447047461. Web site about the print encyclopaedia which covers Ethiopia, Eritrea,Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan. Coverage is from prehistoric times up to 1974. A page of corrections to Vol. 1 is available. Has links to related sites. Editorial headquarters are at the Institute of African and Ethiopian Studies, Hamburg University, Hamburg, Germany.   Stanford users see the Searchworks entry.

Ethnologue - Somalia
From the publication, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 13th ed. (Dallas, Tx.: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1996), edited by Barbara F. Grimes. Provides numbers of speakers by language, dialects, linguistic affiliation, etc.
Main Page:

Ethnic medicine information from Harborview Medical Center
"The EthnoMed site contains information about cultural beliefs, medical issues and other related issues pertinent to the health care of recent immigrants to Seattle or the US, many of whom are refugees fleeing war-torn parts of the world." Covers Amharic, Eritrean, Ethiopian, Oromo, Somali, Tigrean. Includes Cultural Profiles, articles such as a report on Somali diet. From the the University of Washington, Health Sciences Library and the Harborview Medical Center in Seattle. [KF]

Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS)
The FEWS Somalia reports are "valuable sources of information on current conditions in Somalia" - D. Hicks, World Food Programme. FEWS is "a USAID-funded activity that collaborates with international, national, and regional partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and vulnerability information on emerging or evolving food security issues." Has e-mail newsletters and updates. Based at Chemonics International, Washington, D.C.

Farah, Nuruddin
Farah was awarded the 1998 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, awarded every two years and the only international literary award from the United States for which poets, playwrights, and novelists are given equal consideration. "It is widely considered to be the most prestigious international prize after the Nobel Prize, and in fact is often referred to as the 'American Nobel.'"

"Bitter Crumbs and  Sour Milk - a Nation Betrayed", article on Somali writer, Farah, from the Manchester Guardian Weekly April 18, 1993. On foreign aid, etc.

Foreign relations of the United States, 1964-1968. Volume 24, Africa.
Editors, Nina Davis Howland, David S. Patterson.Washington, D.C. : Office of the Historian, U.S. Dept. of State, 1999.
Full text primary documents (letters, telegrams, memoranda, etc.) regarding U.S. relations with Africa. Includes the entire continent plus the Horn of Africa, etc. (Dept. of State Publication 10627). [KF]

Gacal Magasiin (Ottawa, Canada)
In Somali.
Geneva Call - Landmines in Somalia
By Pascal Bongard. 15-27 September 2004. 18 p. in PDF. Geneva Call works to ban landmines, based in Geneva, Switzerland.

Global IDP
Very fine site. Profiles of internally displaced persons in over twenty countries (Angola, Burundi, DRC, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda). Extensive historical background, political situation, protection issues, international response, statistics, graphs, maps, sources used with links to online sources. From the Norwegian Refugee Council, Global IDP Project, based in Geneva, Switzerland.

Global Information Network In Education (GINIE)
Based at the University of Pittsburg, GINIE has a Land Mine Awareness Education Programme in Somalia and links to related land mine awareness sites. or

Gollis University
"...a fully accredited baccalaureate-granting institution" Offers two year and four year degrees. Began as "Somaliland's first most comprehensive junior college with boarding facilities. Offers degrees in business, education, engineering and law." Located 13kms North of Hargeisa, Somaliland, accredited by the Government of Somaliland, Ministry of Education, Hargeisa, Somaliland.

Haan Books (London)
Specializes in books on Africa covering anthropology, cultural studies, history, politics, and language especially on the Horn of Africa and Somalia. Has information on the Somali Studies International Association Conference, July 2001. Their books are distributed in the U.S. and Canada by Peppercorn Press.

Hargeysa Cultural Center
Has a library, art gallery, film screenings, theatre performances, cafe, etc.  Hosts the Hargeysa Book Fair. The 2017 Fair.  Online articles include an interview with the writer Nurrudin Farah. The Center opened August 2014 in Hargeysa, Somaliland, was established by Redsea Cultural Foundation.

Hiiraan Online
In English and Somali. News articles (from major news publications), political commentary, a Somalia music site, extensive links to Somali related sites. Maintained by the Hiiraan Community in North America, based in Ottawa, Canada.

HornAfrik Media
The organization has closed. The Internet Arhive has archived its web site. In Somali. Private television and radio organization, the "first independent broadcaster in Somalia’s history." Founded by Ali Imam Sharmarke (killed August 2007). Based in Mogadishu, Somalia. Committee to Protect Journalists - report on April 2007 attack on HornAfrik.

Horn Heritage Digital Museum
"non-profit, apolitical organisation dedicated at preserving the cultural heritage of the Horn of Africa, with focus on the Somali speaking-region... created in 2011 by Dr Sada Mire, a renowned archaeologist....
Projects : 3D Scanning of Somaliland rock Art, Somali Heritage in International Collections, Somali Artifacts in Djibouti, Jaalelo The Garden of Eden in Somaliland, Aksum and Lalibela in Ethiopia under threat from war, Hargeisa (Somaliland).

Horn of Africa Bulletin (Uppsala, Sweden)
Published by the Life and Peace Institute. "monthly newsletter compiling analyses, news and resources on issues related to conflict and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa region." Full text on-line from 2008.
Covers Somalia, Somaliland, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, Sudan, etc.

In Somali and English. News on Somaliland, articles from the Somliland newspaper, Jamhuuriya and other sources. Has a biography of President Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal of Somaliland, an article, "Executive Summary. Introduction: The Uncentralised Somali Legacy" on Somali government by Ioan M. Lewis and others. The article on the web has an erroneous title "President Gheelle: The Bad Apple in the Horn" and is actually the Executive Summary of the monograph, "A Study of Decentralised Political Structures for Somalia: A Menu of Options. Report prepared by consultants from the London School of Economics and Political Science." (Aug. 1995. 97 pages). Thanks to Deborah Hicks of the U.N. World Food Programme for this correction. Somaliland declared itself independent from Somalia.

Hoyga Suugaanta
In Somali. Somaliland literature.

Human Rights Watch - Somalia

Human Rights Watch - Shell-Shocked: Civilians Under Siege in Mogadishu
"Ethiopian, Somali and insurgent forces are all responsible for rampant violations of the laws of war in Mogadishu, causing massive suffering for the civilian population." Pub. Aug. 13, 2007. 113 p. See other reports on Somalia and on Somaliland. "Human Rights Watch is an independent, nongovernmental organization, supported by contributions from private individuals and foundations worldwide. It accepts no government funds"

Human Rights Watch - Welcome to Kenya: Police Abuse of Somali Refugees
June 2010 report. "Kenya's welcoming committee for Somali refugees is a notoriously corrupt and abusive police force." Includes maps.

ICC Commercial Crime Services
Reports, information on Somali piracy and pirate activity, piracy maps. See the IMB Piracy Reporting Centre. Based in London.

IFEX, International Freedom of Expression Exchange - Somalia
Alerts about press freedom violations, articles, reports and links on freedom of expression in Somalia.

Iftiin Publishers
Publisher of grammars, dictionaries, etc. in Somali and English.

Site of the Somali super model. Has her biography, a video of Iman's visit to Somalia with the ICRC (Red Cross) during the famine, (her first visit in 20 years), meeting her uncle in Baidoa, visiting Mogadishu, etc. includes a diary of her visit and a conversation with Sudanese model, Alek Wek.

Indiana University Library (Bloomington) - African Studies - Somalia Materials
The Librarian for African Studies is Dr. Marion Frank-Wilson. The library is strong in anthropology, linguistics, literature, history, political science. There is a list of Current African newspaper subscriptions at Indiana. Has an index to its African Poster Collection (including Somalia posters) and African Movie Poster Collection - Nuovi Graffiti D'Africa. Search the online catalog, IUCAT, for the Bloomington campus and other Indiana University campuses. Has on-line Africana Resources for Undergraduates: A Bibliographic Essay. By Dr. Nancy J. Schmidt In, Phyllis M. Martin and Patrick O'Meara (eds.), Africa. Third edition. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995, pp. 413-434 Collections include the Digital Somali Library.

Institute of Practical Research and Training (Hargeisa)
Has full text speeches / reports from the Horn of Africa / Gulf of Aden Conference on Landmines (Djibouti, 2000), a report on the First Conference on "Reconstruction Strategies and Challenges Beyond Rehabilitation" (Hargeisa, 1998), brief reports on landmines in Somaliland, Somalia, and Djibouti, a report on the role of the Somaliland [internet] Forum, Women and Public Decision Making in Somaliland by Amina Mohamed Warsame, a WHO / UNICEF report on AIDS in Somaliland, the Somali language in education, etc. The Institute works in partnership with the Somaliland government House of Representatives (training, building the library), sponsors a clinic for orphan Somali children, etc. Information about "Somaliland," a book of photographs and essays on Somaliland, by Barbara Euser and Patrick Lagès, is on the site. Based in Hargeisa, Somaliland.

Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
Formerly the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) which was created in 1986 by Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda to co-ordinate development in the Horn of Africa. The State of Eritrea became the seventh member of IGADD in September 1993 after its independence. Has press releases. Based in Djibouti.

International Census Collection Online Catalog, Univ. of Texas (Austin) - Somalia
A bibliography of census holdings, mainly population and housing censuses. Volumes may be borrowed thru interlibrary loan by U.S. libraries. [KF] Main page:

International Conference on Prospects for a Horn of Africa Confederation, Nov. 14-15, 2002, University of South Florida, Tampa

International Congress of Somali Studies, 7th, 1999 July 8-11, York University (Canada)

International Crisis Group - Somalia
ICG is " independent, non-profit, multinational organisation, based in Brussels, Belgium. Many full text reports such as: Negotiating a Blueprint for Peace in Somalia (March 2003. 31 p. Africa Report, No. 59) Salvaging Somalia’s Chance For Peace (Dec. 2002, 12 p.). Somalia: Countering Terrorism in a Failed State (May 2002)

International Crisis Group. Crisis Watch Digest Somalia
The CrisisWatch Digest Somalia offers a monthly one-page snapshot of conflict-related country trends.

International Crisis Group - Somaliland: Democratisation and Its Discontents
Full text report. July 28, 2003. 53 p. in Adobe pdf. Makes recommendations to the Somaliland government, donor governments, the U.N., African Union, and IGAD including "granting Somaliland observer status pending a final decision on its international status."  For a critique of this report, see International Crisis Group Report on Somaliland: an Alternative Somali Response, by Abdi Ismail Samatar and Ahmed I. Samatar.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Use the Search form to locate a health profile on Somalia, information on the Somali Red Crescent Society and other health related information on Somalia.

International Monetary Fund - Somalia

International Resource Group on Disarmament and Security in the Horn of Africa (IRG) " effort to engage civil society groups and individuals in exploring alternative approaches to security policy." Has full text reports on the Horn of Africa military profiles, Kenya, Somalia, Somaliland, Sudan, Uganda. From Project Ploughshares, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, Waterloo, Canada. Has reports on Civil-Military Relations in Somaliland and Northeast Somalia, Conflict Resolution in Somaliland.

Journal of Humanitarian Assistance
A free e-journal based at University of Bradford, Bradford, U.K.. Has full text articleson Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire. Also articles on Somalia, Uganda, Tanzania, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

Kulmiye Party
In Somali and English. Political party in Somaliland. Its candidate in the April 2003 Presidential election, Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo, came in second but later became President of Somaliland 2010-2017. Based in Hargeisa, Somaliland.

In Somali. Publishes books in Somali.

Library of Congress Country/Country Studies
Formerly called Army Area Handbooks long used as basic reference sources. Information on the history, society, economy, politics, national security of each country. Covers Somalia

Library of Congress - Eritrea and Ethiopia Postcards
Historical postcards owned by the Library of Congress, U.S. Includes some from Italian Somalia. Large file. Takes a while to load.

Library of Congress - Somalia Postcards
Historical postcards from early 1900s to approx. 1930s. Owned by the Library of Congress, U.S. Large file. Takes a while to load.

Maass, Peter - "Mogadishu, Ayn Rand Comes to Somalia"
Full text article (3 p.) in The Atlantic Monthly, May 2001, on how Somali businessmen are providing internet, phone service, consumer services, and a "stock exchange" based on trust in spite of minimum government operations.

Mahmood, Omar S. and Mohamed Farah - High Stakes for Somaliland's Presidential Elections
Political and security issues and the 2017 November 13 Presidential election. Published by the Institute for Security Studies (Pretoria, South Africa) and the Academy for Peace and Development (Hargeisa,  Somaliland). 24 pages in PDF (formerly Magellan Geographix)
Based in Santa Barbara, California. Has African country maps, city maps, a Somali ethnic group map, etc.
In Somali and English. Current news. Links to BBC Somali. Head office in London. Office in Mogadishu Somalia.

Marka Cadeey
In Somali. News, links to sites on Somalia including radio stations, information on a symposium on Somali agriculture, on the Al-Ansar Institute of Islamic Education and Basic Science (Elementary/Intermediate/High) in Marka, Somalia. Based in Ottawa, Canada.

In Somali and English. News, commentary on Somalia politics, Somali - English dictionary, listen to Somali music, games. Photographs, links to related sites. Guide on how to perform prayer. "for the Somali-Brava and Banadir community" Based in Vancouver, Washington.

Maroodi Jeex, A Somaliland Alternative Newsletter
"...a quarterly journal specially written for those who are serious about protecting their freedoms, their privacy and their person against Big Brother..." Has many articles from 1996 to date.

Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology - Somalia Reports
Institute members working on Somalia / Somaliland include Jutta Bakonyi, Luca Ciabarri, Markus V. Höhne, Günther Schlee. The Institute is in Halle/Saale, Germany. [KF] Working Papers include - Höhne, Markus V. - Traditional Authorities in Northern Somalia: Transformation of powers and positions. (29 p. in pdf). Working Paper, 82. Schlee, Günther. - Regularity in Chaos: The politics of difference in the recent history of Somalia (34 p. in pdf). Working Paper, 18. Schlee, Günther. - Competition and Exclusion in Islamic and Non-Islamic Societies: an essay on purity and power. (26 p. in pdf). Working Paper, 52.

Mbendi Country Profile - Somalia
Basic country data, country overview and outlook. By MBendi Information Services (Pty) Ltd. a business consulting company in Claremont, South Africa.

Menkhaus, Ken - Somalia: A Country in Peril, a Policy Nightmare
Published Sept. 3, 2008. "the first of two ENOUGH strategy papers on Somalia by Ken Menkhaus, a professor at Davidson College and a specialist on the Horn of Africa. ..... the first half of this report provides an analysis of the current crisis in Somalia. The second half critically examines why international policies toward Somalia have produced disastrously unintended results..." "ENOUGH is a project of the Center for American Progress." Based in Washington, D.C.

Merka Art Gallery, Contemporary African Art
Features work of Mohamed Buwe Sidi Osman, a Somalia self-taught artist who works with acrylic. Dr. Osman is also a physician at the Kent Medical Center, Washington state.

Middle East Research & Information Project, MERIP (Washington, D.C.)
MERIP is a a non-profit, non-governmental organization, over 30 years old. Use the Search to locate articles on Somalia such as "War Clouds Over Somalia" by Dan Connell (pub. March 2002) or "Why Black Hawks Go Down" by Ian Urbina (pub. Feb. 2002).

Minority Rights Group International (London)
Has a Horn of Africa Programme (Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Uganda), publications, a newsletter, Outsider, and a report on Pastoralists in the Horn of Africa.

Mogadishu University (Mogadishu, Somalia)
Private non-profit institution of higher learning established in 1996. Has a history of the university, Institute for Somali Studies, university projects planned.

P.0. Box: 27081, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Tel: 252 -59-44115
Somalia Fax: 252-1-216820
Somalia E-mail:

Mohamud, Hassan Sheikh
In Somali. Web site of the President of Somalia, elected 2022 May.

A Nation of Poets
Proposed documentary film [on Somali poetry and politics] "that will tell the story of a Somali women's, the director's, return to her worn-torn country, patterning the journey taken by Canadian novelist Margaret Laurence in 1950. The film will examine issues and themes that Laurence explored in her travels to Somaliland in the 1950's, during British colonial time, and it will take up these themes in its exploration of the civil war and Somalia's historic movement for national independence." Has the filmmaker's biography, a slide show of photographs, audio clips, etc.

National Union of Somali Journalists, NUSOJ
"...a non-profit and nongovernmental organization, registered as a trade union, which is an umbrella body for all Somali journalists." Alerts regarding press, radio, TV freedom. Video reports. Based in Mogadishu, Somalia. Has online its 2008 Annual Report, SOMALIA: A Precarious and Perilous Place for the Press. 12 p. in PDF. They have a Facebook page, National Union of Somali Journalists, NUSOJ. See also the report, Media Freedom Kept Within Bounds: Report on Somaliland (12 pages in PDF).

NationLink Somalia
In Somali. A Somali telecommunications company, GSM mobile service, internet service provider, provides local dial-up service, offers 24-hour unlimited access. Based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Network Startup Resource Center - Somalia
History of connectivity, information on internet service providers.

Site has closed. Had the Somali Archive, Hornet (information from the PADIS Fidonet network in Ethiopia), issues of Somalia News Update, information on the Falasha of Ethiopia, some articles on economic development, a Somali music clip, etc. Was maintained by Michael Maren.

Novib Somalia
The Strengthening Somali Civil Society project of Novib is based in Nairobi, Kenya. "The overall objective of our project is the achievement of permanent respect for human rights, justice through rule of law, pluralism, good governance and sustainable peace in Somalia/land."

Directory of Civil Society Organisations.
Full text documents (2003 civil society conference reports) Novib works with Oxfam International and is based in Den Haag, Netherlands.

Oakley, Robert B., and David Bentley - "Peace operations : a comparison of Somalia and Haiti"
[Washington, D.C.?] : National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, [1995]. 4 p. Series: (Strategic forum ; no. 30). Oakley was U.S. Ambassador to Somalia. The NDU, in Washinton, D.C., "educates military and civilian leaders through teaching, research, and outreach in national security strategy, national military strategy, and national resource strategy;..." [KF]

Ogaal News (Hargeysa)
In Somali and English. Somaliland news. "Online version of Ogaal Newspaper published in Hargeisa." Founded in 2005.

Ogaden Online
In Somali and English. Site for the "Ogaden struggle for self-determination", gives the Ogaden Somalis' point of view. Has statements from the Ogaden National Liberation Front. Political / economic news and commentary, political cartoons, events, issues, special reports and conversation. Includes a map. Audio files from various broadcasts (Radio Xorriyo, Sagal Radio, Sydney Somali Radio). Site based in Toronto, Canada.

Ogadan Relief Association
"...we are a relief organisation officially recognised and registered in the Federal Republic of Germany known: "Ogaden Relief Association" - O.R.A. Our organisation is a nonprofit and nonpolitical welfare organisation whose target is to help and organise international humanitarian aid for the suffering population of Ogadenia." "The Ogaden Region was annexed by Ethiopia with the help of Britain on September 24, 1948." Historical background, Ogaden Human Rights Committee, etc. h

Partnership Africa Canada
"...created in 1986 with the support of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and Canadian and African non-governmental organizations (NGOs)." Topics include blood diamonds, the African Peer Review Mechanism, NEPAD and development. Links to African civil society organizations. Based in Ottawa, Canada.

Peppercorn Books & Press
Publishes Somali language dictionaries, grammers, phrasebooks, thesaurus, K-12 and teacher resources, books on Somalia's politics, culture, history. Based in Greensboro, North Carolina.

Phillips, Joan - Operation Restore Hope (Somalia)
Bibliography including periodical articles. Pub. March 2000. Joan Phillips is Bibliographer, Air University Library, Maxwell AFB, AL.

Power and Interest News Report, PINR
PINR is " independent organization that utilizes open source intelligence to provide conflict analysis services in the context of international relations." Reports on Africa include "Somalia's Fluid Politics Move Toward Polarization" ( July 07 2006); "Somaliland and the Issue of International Recognition;" "China and Angola Strengthen Bilateral Relationship" (June 23 2006); "Nigeria Avoids a Governance Crisis" (June 21 2006); " "Rebel Attack Threatens Deby's Government in Chad;" "Elections Approach in Democratic Republic of Congo.'' Based in Chicago, Ilinois.

Prendergast, John - 15 Years After Black Hawk Down: Somalia's Chance?
Pub. April 24, 2008. (ENOUGH Strategy Paper, 18) Full report. 13 pages in PDF. ENOUGH is a public policy institute to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Based in Washington, D. C.

Formerly the Catholic Institute for International Relations (CIIR) until the end of 2005. Conducts development work in Somalia/Somaliland, Zimbabwe and work in human rights, peace initiatives. Full text of Further steps to democracy: The Somaliland parliamentary elections (September 2005, 32 p. in PDF). Publishes Interact magazine. Based in London.

Prunier, Gerard- "Somalia Reinvents Itself"
April 2000 article in Le Monde Diplomatique (Paris).

Prunier, Gerard - "Somaliland, a forgotten country"
October 1997 article in the Paris newspaper, Le Monde Diplomatique, about The Republic of Somaliland, which broke away from the rest of Somalia in 1991.

Public Broadcasting Corp. - Ambush in Mogadishu
Site for the Frontline TV program on the 1993 battle of U.S. forces in Somalia. Interviews, articles, photographs, audio clips. Sections on the Firefight, U.S. Rangers, weapons & technology, program transcript, teachers' guide, chronology, replies to questions by Rangers involved in the events.

Public Broadcasting Corporation - Jim Lehrer News Hour
Has the transcript of an August 2, 1996 program -- "Death of a Warlord. When Somali warlord Mohamed Farah Aideed died on Thursday,hopes of a peace in the fractured country rose again. Steve Scott of ITN reports on the leader and his legacy, and Margaret Warner talks with veteran diplomat Robert Oakley about the road ahead."

Puntland Government of Somalia
In Somali, has some English. "the people of Sool, Southern and Eastern Sanaag regions and Buhoodle District, who freely decided through series of consultative and constitutional public conferences, to join with their brethren in the North-East Somalia, jointly forming the Puntland State of Somalia, a major partner of a future Somali federal system of government." Includes the Puntland constitution, historical background, press releases.

Puntland Medical Association
"...founded in 1999, is a Professional association that unite all Puntland State Medical Doctors in one organization."

Puntland Students Association in Uganda

Qorahay Online
In Somali. A few items in English such as a Feb. 2003 protest by the Ogaden Community in the U.S. Site based in Bankstown, Australia.

Radio Banadir
Independent, non-governmental station, based in Mogadishu.

Radio Mogadishu
In Somali. See also New York Times March 29, 2010 article, "A Guiding Voice Amid the Ruins of a Capital City" by Jeffrey Gettleman who says the station is the "only relatively free radio station in south central Somalia". Operating since 1951.

Radio Somaliland
Mainly in Somali. News, links to many Somalia sites. Video clips of Somaliland. Based in Ottawa, Canada.

Red Sea Online
Has rules of the game, layli, and software to play the game (similar to mancala), a list of books on Somaliland, a Somali-English-Italian online dictionary. Based in Pisa, Italy.
First Somali e-commerce company established on august 2014. Sells books, electronics, cosmetics, etc. Founded by Sami Gabas. Based in Hargeisa,Somaliland.

In Somali and English. News, articles, photographs, cartoons on Somaliland. Links to related sites. Based in Columbus, Ohio.

"a think tank dedicated to promoting peace, stability, and development."  "its primary focus is the Horn of Africa, East Africa and the Middle East" "provides governments, international organisations, and donors with strategic policy advice." Reports on migration / displacement in the Horn, Violent Extremism and Clan Dynamics in Kenya, Community Resilience to Violent extremism‌ Kenya, Al-Shabaab, Human Trafficking, videos.  Offices in Somalia, Kenya, and the UK.

"...project dealing with small arms issues in the Horn of Africa"; "promotes dialogue and non-violent conflict resolution. Projects are implemented by the Bonn International Center for Conversion - BICC and the International Resource Group on Disarmament and Security in the Horn of Africa (IRG). Does field work in Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan. Has report of a 2000 Workshop on Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons in Garissa District (Kenya), a report of a workshop on the Control and Managment of Arms on Inter-communal, Domestic and Business Violence (Kenya). Has text of intergovernment declarations on small arms (Nairobi, Bamako), a link to a 42 p. report, Curbing the Demand for Small Arms - Lessons in East Africa and the Horn of Africa and a directory of peace related organizations in the Horn.

Saraar Media - East African Media Centre (London)
In English and Somali. Current news on Somalia, Somaliland, the rest of Africa, the Somali Diaspora. Online music. Videos (in Somali).

Shinn, David H. - Fighting Terrorism in East Africa and the Horn
7 p. in PDF. Article in the Foreign Service Journal, Vol. 81, No. 9, September 2004. Pub. by the American Foreign Service Association.

Somali American Network
Information is for members only. News about Somalia for Somali Americans living in the USA. Based in Columbus, Ohio.

Somali Association for Peace and Democracy (SAPD)
Supports the Transitional National Government. Has a discussion list. To subscribe, send email to: in the body, type: subscribe sapdsomalia-L <your email address> <your name> SAPD is a member of the Institute for Global Communications, IGC. Based in Washington, D.C. E-mail:

Somali Bantu
Site has closed. Was for the Somali Bantu / Jarer people. Includes news, a paper by Omar A. Eno, "The Untold Apartheid In Somalia Imposed on Somali Bantu/Jareer People" (1993) which mentions Abdulkadir Sheck Sakawadin, "one of the founders of the freedom fighting party S. Y .C. (Somali Youth Club), which later became the S.Y.L. (Somali Youth League)." Information on the Somali Asal Muki Organization (SAMO), a political organization established in 1983 by Somali Bantu Politicians and Scholars.

Somali Diaspora Youth

Somali Immigrant Aid Organization
"...non-profit community based Organization.......represents the growing interests of the Somali immigrants in Metro Toronto through a full range of services; integration and settlement services; and the preservation of the Somali Culture." Background, some statistics, extensive related links. Based in Toronto, Canada.

Somali Journalists Syndicate
In English and Somali.  "independent journalists’ trade union established in May 2019 by professional Somali journalists to defend the rights of the working journalists and promote press freedom." Press freedom alerts and campaigns. Based in Mogadishu, Somalia.  [KF]

Somali Lyrics
"First website dedicated to Somali song lyrics." Search for song lyrics, request lyrics. Vote in surveys on songs, musicians. Links to related sites. Maintained by Mohamed Yuusuf.

Somali Magazine
News of the Somali community and events in the U.K. and elsewhere. Political commentary. "Somali Magazine Online was established by Blaze D on the end of 2003." Articles include "Lost in America" on the different stages of the Somali community. Based in the U.K.

Somali Media
In Somali. Based in Sweden.

Somali National Party
"...the former Somali Youth League (SYL)" Maintained by Mohammed-ameen Saeed Ahmed.

Somali Peace Process
In Somali. On the Somali national peace conference in Arta, Djibouti, July 2000. A few items are in English. Has speeches by Djibouti President Ismail Omar Guelle on Somalia, a page on the Djibouti Peace Initiative On Somalia, progress report of the Djibouti National Commission for Peace in Somalia, etc. h

Somali Poster Collection
A listing, with photographs, of Indiana University's (Bloomington) very fine Somali Poster collection is at:

Somali Students Association
In English and Somali. "a non-profit organization for all the students from Somalia...established in 1998...Today the association is made up of more than three hundred members and is the largest organization at the MCTC [Minneapolis Community and Technical College] campus. We have been awarded the best organization three times in the last three years and in the year 2003-2004, we surpassed all expectations by being awarded the best overall organization." Discussion forum, commentary, photographs. Based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Somali Teachers Association
Non profit, professional organization of teachers. Information on Somalia education, Somali National University, the College of Education, articles, Islam, photographs, links to related sites. Site based in Toronto, Canada.

Somali U.K.
News, political commentary, Somali music (requires sound card), links to radio sites, facts about Somalia, historical chronology, discussion forums, articles from various sources. Based in London.

Somali Voices
In English and Somali. News, facts about Somalia, includes biographical information on Asha Ahmed Abdalla, woman political leader. Web site based in Columbus, Ohio.

Somalia, a Country Study - Library of Congress
Published 1993. Full-text of the Army Area Handbooks long used as basic reference sources. History, society, economy, politics, national security, etc.

Somalia. Federal Parliament

Somalia News Update
Site has closed.  The Internet Archive has archived some content. Produced by the late Bernhard.Helander, from August 1992 to December 1994. Issues were on the web site of The Etext Archives.

Somalia Online
Many discussion forums on Somalia. Need to register (which is free) to post. Site based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Somalia Shortwave Target List
A list of clandestine radios broadcasting to Somalia. From the Radio Homepage of Martin Schöch. Mr. Schöch is the founder of Clandestine Radio Watch.

Somalia. Transitional Federal Government
In Somali and English. Site with government information, located on the free web hosting company, Tripod. Web site based in the United States.

Somalia Watch
Mainly in Somali. Supports the Transitional National Government. Has political commentary, a discussion forum, map. Some links do not work.

Somalia Watch
In English and Somali. Current news, articles, analysis by Somalis and others, links to Somalia web sites. Says it will focus on the "Governance and Human Rights situation in Somalia." Is critical of the Transitional National Government. Based in Qatar, Arabian Gulf.

Somaliland [Government]
Official site. Has a country profile, documents on political developments in Somaliland such as the results of the Somaliland May 31, 2001 constitutional referendum, a report on the Somaliland National Referendum, May 31, 2001, in Adobe PDF, text of the Constitution. Addresses of Somaliland missions abroad (visa source), country information, the flag, maps, the Constitution, the Bank of Somaliland, list of NGOs, links to related sites. Maintained by the Somaliland Mission U.K.

Somaliland American Council
In English and Somali. Site for the Expatriate Community. "Somaliland American Council (SAC) advocates for the development of close relationship between the people of Somaliland and United States for their mutual benefit."

Somaliland Care International
In English and French. A "non-profit organization dedicated to help social justice in Somaliland"; founded in 2001. Based in Ottawa, Canada. [KF]

Somaliland Chamber of Commerce
"The Somaliland Chamber of Commerce, Industry & Agriculture (SCCIA) is an independent employers’ organization." Services include "advice, general assistance on trade and investment as well as business opportunities leads abroad and library services with a range of trade documents and foreign business directories." Based in Hargeisa, Somaliland.

Somaliland Cyberspace
"Somaliland Republic, bordered to the east by Somalia, Ethiopia to the south, and Djibouti to the west, corresponds to the former colonial territory of British Somaliland Protectorate." Has their flag, many full text articles on history, politics, the society, the civil war, economy, clanship, literature, khat, women. Maintained by Mohamed Saleh Bali.

Publications such as Demobilizing Most of the SNM Military Forces and Transferring the Rest of SNM Military Forces to Our Government

Somaliland Forum
In Somali and English. " international organization that brings together Somalilanders from all parts of the world..."and which supports the recognition of Somaliland as an independent state. Describes their education (support for the University of Hargeisa), health, and development programs. Has the 2001 Somaliland Constitution, full text laws, position papers regarding events in Somalia, information on the Somaliland National Elections Commission, news from newspapers (Haatuf News, Somaliland Times, etc.), the dangers of using khat.

Somaliland - International Election Observation Mission 2017
The Limits of Consensus?  Report of the Somaliland Presidential Election, 13th November 2017.
By Michael Walls, Conrad Heine, Andrea Klingel and others. English edition is 64 pages in PDF. Published by Development Planning Unit, The Bartlett, University College London, London, U.K., 2018. The Somaliland Focus website has information on the 2005, 2010, and 2012 elections.

Somaliland - International Election Observation Mission 2017
Blog about the 2017 European Observer Mission to the Somaliland November 13, 2017 Presidential Election. Includes photographs of the election, cities (Hargeisa, Burao), accounts of the election. Created by Nick Kremer, former Peace Corps Volunteer to Somalia and 2017 Election Observer.

Somaliland International Recognition Action Group
News, articles, photographs, on democracy, development, women, culture. Older content from 2001. Links to related sites.

Somaliland Law
Full text of the Somaliland Constitution, information on Somaliland laws.

Somaliland. Ministry of National Planning and Development

Somaliland. National Electoral Commission
Established in 2001, the Commission managed the first "free and fair election" held in Somaliland. The commission consists of seven members. Three are appointed by the President, two by the House of Elders ( Guurti) and two by the opposition parties." Profiles of commission members, commission structure, regulations, goals, projects. Based in Somaliland.

Somaliland Net
Featuring links pertaining to Somali culture, education, current news, technology, religion, music, and government, discussion forum, chat room, April 2003 election news.

Somaliland Online
In English. Official site. Press releases, news, country profile, maps, diplomatic offices abroad, the flag, full text of the Constitution, the Bank of Somaliland, public holidays, list of local NGOs, "Somaliland is situated on the eastern horn of Africa..... It shares borders with Republic of Djibouti to the west, Federal Republic of Ethiopia to the south and Somalia to the east." Site maintained by the Somaliland Mission, London, United Kingdom.
In English and Somali. News (extensive news archive), commentary, analysis, photographs. Country profile (map, flag). Has "As The Kenyan Somali 'Peace' Conference Falls Apart In Confusion, Recognition Of Somaliland's Independence Is Overdue" by Prof. I. M. Lewis. Links to related sites. Created by a group of Somaliland citizens "who felt that there is a need to bring a broad and non-biased information about Somaliland." "This website does not represent the government of Somaliland, nor is it affiliated with any particular party or association." Font size can be automatically enlarged.

Somaliland Poets, Poems, Singers, Songwriters
In Somali. Poetry in Somali. Has English language short articles on history and music (see the Archives section). Maintained by Najiib Axmad Shunuuf and Foosi Axmad Shunuuf.

Somaliland Policy & Reconstruction Institute
"To advocate...the desires of the people of Somaliland to have full rights of economic self-determination and to articulate their aspirations to gain independent statehood and recognition by the international community as a sovereign and independent state." Based in Los Angeles, California.

Somaliland Post
In Somali and English. "News, Sports, Diaspora Community, Somaliland Jobs, Entertainment on Somaliland and the Horn of Africa." Based in Hargeysa, Somaliland.

Somaliland University of Technology, SUTECH
Began in 2000 as the Hargeisa College of Applied Arts and Technology (Hargeisa CAAT). "SUTECH is the only stand alone technical university in Somaliland and is offering for the first time, an 'Interdisciplinary undergraduate programme in Global Development and Environmental Studies'. Accredited by the Ministry of Education, Government of Somaliland. Based in Hargeisa, Somaliland.

Extensive site with news, Somali organizations, the SomaliNet discussion forum, Somali Womens Forum, books about Somalia section, a business exchange, links to many other Somalia related sites. Based in Toronto, Canada.

Somali Press
In Somali. News in English and Somali. Hosts a discussion forum.

Somali Talk
In Somali. News in English. Lots of information for Somali readers, has the Gacal Magazine, discussion forums, etc. Based in London, Ontario, Canada.

In Somali and English. Political commentary, chat, music downloads, links to Somalia sites.

SomiTek, Somali Information Technology
A software company, based in Richardson, Texas, has produced Hikaadiye, a Somali/English word processing program which includes a Somali spell checker. They also produce Tarjume software, which translates from Somali to English and vice verse. The software runs on Windows 95, 98 or NT.

Somlans, Somali Language Services Ltd.
Translation services, from Somali to English and vice versa. Based in London, England.
Access to articles requires payment. Stratfor is an intelligence consulting firm in Austin, Texas, established March 1999. Has news, full text articles such as, "Somalia Revisited: Gadhafi's Plan for Partition" published 22 March, 2000.

Swiss Peace. FAST Early Warning System - Somalia
Has risk assessment, conflict analysis reports for 2003. Reports are c. 7-9 pages in Adobe pdf. Reports are by Lionel Cliffe (Emeritus Prof. of Politics, Leeds) and Philip White. Swiss Peace is a peace research institute founded in 1988. "FAST aims at enhancing the political decision makers' ability to identify critical developments in a timely manner [to]...prevent or limit destructive effects of violent conflict..."

A Taste of Africa: My Journey to a Nation Unknown to the World
Blog by Yvette, a development worker from the Philippines, working with civil society groups in Somaliland.. Accounts of life in Somaliland including the April 2003 Somaliland Presidential election and other political events with background. Includes health, human rights, Somali food, women, comments by readers of the blog ,photographs and links to related web sites.

See also Ahmed in Burco. and
Older site:

Tawakal Lifeline Somali Women's Group (London)
A U.K. registered women's NGO established in 1991 by a group of Somali refugee women who seek to help meet the housing, health, social, educational and employment needs of new Somali refugee families in East London.

Tobia, Peter - Somalia: A Nation in Name Only
"In May 1997, Inquirer staff writer Mark Bowden and staff photographer Peter Tobia journeyed to Mogadishu to chronicle what had become of the city since the American troop pullout in 1993. This essay in photographs and words by Peter Tobia is the result." Includes audio clips.

UCID Party / Justice and Welfare Party of Somaliland
In Somali. Its candidate, Faisal Ali Warabe, came in third in the first Somaliland Presidential election held April 2003. Has audio files.

In Somali, some articles in English. Political party. In the April 2003 first Somaliland Presidential election, it's candidate, Dahir Riyale Kahin, won the Presidency.

UNESCO. Africa Revisited (PDF file)
In English and French. About the "richness, the diversity, and the fragility" of Africa's cultural heritage. Has one graphic of  "The city of Mogadishu, as seen from the sea." Photo: National Museums of Kenya / J. De Vere Allen collection. Part of the UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

UNICEF - Somalia
UNICEF's programs on health, education, etc. in Somalia. Full text issues of UNICEF Somalia Monthly Review. Photographs. "UNICEF is the organization with the largest presence in Somalia. It has been operational in the country since 1972. Since the collapse of the Somali government in 1991, UNICEF has continued to render services to children and women in Somalia."

United Nations. Cartographics Section
In English and French. Has a detailed Somalia map, in Adobe pdf format. Describes the Dag Hammarskjöld Library Map Collection.

United Nations Development Program - Somalia
News, full text reports on Somalia. [KF]

United Nations Development Program. Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia (Addis Ababa)
A wealth of information: country profile, situation reports, reports for each region, thematic reports (food security, health, refugees/returnees). The situation reports (1996-1997) include coverage of Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, and Uganda. Will have databases for download. Has maps and an Archive of 1994-1996 reports including Somalia Reports and a Horn of Africa Review. Hosted at the UPenn African Web site.

United Nations in Somalia
Old web site. History of the UN in Somalia, Somalia history, facts, press releases from 2002/3. Site based in Carlsbad, California, U.S.

United Nations. ReliefWeb - Somalia
Very current political / economic news on Somalia. Maintained by the UN Dept. of Humanitarian Affairs.

United Nations. Reports of the Panel of Experts and the Monitoring Group on Somalia as well as the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea
Reports from 2002 and following.

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights - Somalia
In English, French, Spanish. Full text documents, press releases, statements.

United States. Agency for International Development. Development Experience Clearinghouse
Full text reports from USAID consultants on foreign aid, African education, African agriculture, trade, health (including HIV/AIDS), food security, environment, democracy & governance, communications, energy, housing, humanitarian assistance, population, science, women in development.

Use the Search the Development Experience System. Documents are in Adobe PDF format. Also locate print documents which can be purchased.

United States. Agency for International Development. USAID in Africa. Country Information: Somalia
Excellent site with information from FAO, UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, U.S. Geological Survey, etc., as well as USAID. Includes human rights reports. Covers Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda. Has maps, for ex. street map of Addis Ababa, administrative boundaries of Ethiopia.

United States. Army. Center of Military History
Has a search facility for the library catalog. Locate citations to publications on Operation Restore Hope, for ex., in the catalog.

United States. Census Bureau. Foreign Trade Statistics
Has Historical trade data by product categories (1996 + )
U.S. Trade Balance with the Somalia. (1992 + )

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Chiefs of State & Cabinet Members - Somalia
Usually provides the names of the President, Cabinet members, the Governor of the Central Bank, the country's Ambassador to the U.S., and its U.N. Representative. See also the list from France's Ministere des Affaires Etrangères.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook - Somalia
Brief history, Geography, People, Government, Economy, Communications, Transportation, Military, Transnational Issues, the flag and a simple map.

United States Committee for Refugees
Country Reports for Somalia, photographs for purchase (free to non-profits and non sectarian orgs.), an audio file of "That's When I Realized This Is Real" - Weris Jama, from Somalia, talks about her experience being forced to flee Somalia in 1990. The U. S. Committee for Refugees is a private non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C.

U.S. Committee for Refugees - "Welcome Home to Nothing: Refugees Repatriate to a Forgotten Somaliland"
Full text report by Joel Frushone. Pub. 2001, 34 p. in Adobe pdf. Includes a historical background, maps, photographs, a chronology from 1887, refugee camps for Somalis, the education system, health care, water supply, the economy, recommended action. The U. S. Committee for Refugees is a private non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C.

United States. Department of State. Consular Information Sheet- Somalia
The State Dept. provides up-to-date information for tourists traveling to the Somalia.

United States. Department of State. Report on Human Rights Practices - Somalia
2013 Report, 2012 Report, 2011 Report, 2010 Report, 2009 Report, 2008 Report, 2007 Report, 2006 Report, 2005 Report, 2004 Report, 2003 Report, 2002 Report, 2001 Report, 2000 Report, 1999 Report, 1998 Report , 1997 Report, 1996 Report, 1995, 1994, 1993:

United States Institute of Peace - Terrorism in the Horn of Africa
Report. 16 pages, in Adobe pdf. Published January 2004 | Special Report No. 113. "The United States Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan, national institution established and funded by Congress." Based in Washington, D.C.

United States Military Academy. Department of History. Map Library
Atlases produced by West Point's History Dept. The maps are the "digital versions from the atlases printed by the United States Defense Printing Agency." Under "Wars and Conflicts Since 1958" are maps of Somalia 1992-93 and the city of Mogadishu. Click on the maps for en enlargement.

University of Hargeisa (Somaliland)
"The University of Hargeisa was officially inaugurated by His Excellency, Mr. Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal, the President of the Republic of Somaliland on 23 October 2000." Information on faculty, programs, etc. Their e-mail address is:

University of Pennsylvania Somalia Page and Search Engine
Maps, an embassy directory, travel, language information, etc. Site created by Julie Sisskind, now maintained by Ali Dinar. UPenn has a search facility where one can input keywords to receive information found on their very large web site.

University of Southern California. Initiative & Referendum Institute
Site mainly on U.S. politics, but has the full text of "Somaliland National Referendum, May 31, 2001, Final Report of the Initiative & Referendum Institue's Election Monitoring Team. 138 pages in PDF.

Waal, Alex de - Class and Power in a Stateless Somalia
August 1996 discussion paper. On the Justice Africa web site.

Walls, Michael - Statebuilding in the Somali Horn
Michael Walls (University College, London) was a co-organizer of previous Somaliland election observer missions. (Series: Counterpoints)
London: Africa Research Institute, 2014. 13 pages.

Walls, Michael and Kibble, Steve - Somaliland: Change and Continuity, Report by International Election Observers on the June 2010 Presidential Elections in Somaliland
London, Progresssio, 2011. 54 p. in PDF

In English and Somali. Current news on Somalia, Somaliland, the Horn, commentary, Somali songs (audio), conference information, links to radio stations, literature, Somali pirates, and more. Maintained by Wardheernews Network.

In Somali and English. News in Somali. Readers can post comments.

Yahoo News - Kevin Sites in the Hotzone
War correspondent Sites began his trip to cover major global conflict Sept. 26, 2005 in Somalia, "African al Qaida? What will grow from Somalia's anarchy?". Includes photos, video clips.

Yale University. Council on African Studies - Working Papers
The Council "supports and coordinates the study of Africa within Yale University." Their Working Papers, online in Adobe PDF format, include: #2, "Social Order without the State: The Case of Somalia," by Jason P. Sorens and Leonard Wantchekon, Department of Political Science, Yale University. October 2000. You need to fill out a form before downloading the paper.

Zunes, Stephen - Somalia as Military Target
Short article pub. Jan. 11, 2002. Prof. Zunes is a senior analyst with Foreign Policy In Focus and Associate Professor of Politics and Chair of the Peace & Justice Studies Program, University of San Francisco. On the site of Foreign Policy in Focus by the Institute for Policy Studies (Washington, D.C.) and the Interhemispheric Resource Center (Albuquerque, NM).