Colonial period

Academie Royale des sciences d'outre-mer
Has a list of their many publications. Many full text publications free online. For example - 
Bulletin des séances.

Adam Matthew Publications
Microfilm publisher. Sells 19th and 20th century journals and archival collections in microform. Full text guides to collections are online. Search OCLC's World Catalog and/or RLIN to locate libraries with holdings of these microforms.

  • Church Missionary Society Archive -  See Section IV: Africa Missions. The Introduction contains a history of the CMS by Rosemary Keen.
    Guides to the various sections are online.
    Section IV: Africa Missions
    Part 1: West Africa (Sierra Leone), 1803-1880. 27 reels
    Part 2: West Africa (Sierra Leone), 1820-1880. 18 reels
    Part 3: Nigeria - Yoruba, 1844-1880. 17 reels
    Part 4: Nigeria - Yoruba, 1844-1880. 17 reels
    Part 5: West Africa (Sierra Leone), 1820-1880. 17 reels
    Part 6: Nigeria - Niger, 1857-1882. 12 reels
    Part 7: Sudan, 1905-1949. 21 reels
    Part 8: Nigeria - Yoruba, 1880-1934. 23 reels
    Part 9: Nigeria - Yoruba, 1880-1934. 23 reels
    Part 10: Nigeria - Niger, 1881-1934. 36 reels
    Part 11: Nigeria - Niger, 1880-1934, and Nigeria - Northern Nigeria, 1900-1934. 20 reels
    Part 12: West Africa (Sierra Leone), 1881-1934. 26 reels
    Part 13: West Africa (Sierra Leone), 1935-1949, and Nigeria Missions, 1935-1949. 32 reels
    Part 14: Egypt, 1889-1934. 17 reels
    Part 15: Egypt, 1889-1949. 14 reels
    Part 16: South Africa, 1836-1843, Kenya, 1841-1888, and Nyanza, 1876-1882. 16 reels
    Part 17: Kenya, 1880-1934. 29 reels
    Part 18: Kenya, 1880-1934. 29 reels
    Part 19: Tanganyika, 1900-1934, Nyanza, 1880-1886, and Rwanda, 1933-1934. 13 reels

Aequatoria Archives Research Project
Based at the Research Center of the International Pragmatics Association, University of Antwerp, and works with the Centre Æquatoria, Mbandaka, Congo (DRC). "Its goal is to make extensively annotated editions as well as systematic interpretive analyses of documents from the archives of the Centre Æquatoria - in particular those documents that are relevant to the historiographic study of linguistics and ethnology in colonial times." The Archives have, on microfiche, the proceedings of the Conférence Nationale Souveraine. Has an online Catalogue. The Archives holdings, on microfiche, are available in several locations worldwide (CAMP, Univ. of Wisconsin, etc.). The microfiche can also be purchased from the Archives in Antwerp. Has the full text, in French, of: Témoignagesafricains de l'arrivée des premiers Blancs aux bords des rivières de l'Equateur (RD Congo) -- African testimonies of the arrivals of the first Whites on the river banks in the Congolese Equateur region (± 253pp)

African Indigenous Science and Knowledge Systems
Dr. Gloria Emeagwali, Professor of History, Central Connecticut State University, provides citations to books and links to web sites relating to the, "Background History of Africa, African Food Processing Techniques, African Textile Techniques, African Metallurgy, Colonialism and Africa's Technology.

African Online Digital Library
Project of Michigan State University, IFAN, and WARC.

African Timelines
Chronology with descriptions for Ancient Africa, African Empires, African Slave Trade & European Imperialism, Anti-Colonialism, Post-Independence Africa, plus Sources for Further Study. Site by Cora Agatucci, Associate Professor of English, Central Oregon Community College, Bend, Oregon.

Aggrey, Dr. James Emmanuel Kwegyir, 18 October 1875 - 30 July 1927 "Let's Go! Eagles!!"
Original site has closed. Biographical account with photographs, in three parts, by Dr. Donal Brody of Great Epic Books (Seattle). Part of the original content is on and in 11 pages in PDF on a site whose account has expired.

American Colonization Society, Library of Congress Exhibit
The U.S. Library of Congress holds the records of the American Colonization Society which established Liberia. The exhibit descriptions provide historical background on this period. The Colonization section is part of the African-American Mosaic exhibit. Colonization:

American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Color of the United States
Four page account of efforts to establish a colony in Sierra Leone or Liberia for free African-Americans. Part of the Afro-American Almanac.
See also: Constitution of the American Society for Colonizing.... and the Liberia Constitution (1839).

Amicale Santé Navale et Outre-Mer, ASNOM - l'oeuvre humanitaire du corps de sante colonial francais, 1890-1968
In French. History of diseases, health in Africa and Asia, French colonial history. Includes photographs. "...(ASNOM) est une association sans but lucratif qui regroupe d'anciens élèves des écoles d'application de la marine (Toulon), de l'armée de l'air (Paris) et des troupes coloniales (Marseille). L’école de Marseille (dite du Pharo) accueille des élèves de l’École de santé navale de Bordeaux et, pendant un temps, de l’École de santé militaire de Lyon. Ces élèves constituent l’essentiel du Corps de santé colonial, créé en 1890 et dissous en 1968." Based in Paris. [KF]

Ancient Dutch Forts and Castles in Ghana - Michel R. Doortmont and Michel van den Nieuwenhof
"Some notes on Fort Patience (Apam) and Ussher Fort (Accra). A special contribution to the official home page of the Netherlands Embassy in Accra by Michel R. Doortmont and Michel van den Nieuwenhof." Part of the web site of the Netherlands Embassy in Accra, Ghana.

Association Philat?lique des Collectionneurs de Timbres Poste des Anciennes Colonies Fran?aises (Paris)
In French. Sells publications about stamps from Francophone Africa, has a discussion forum, links to related sites, etc.
Has a Currency Museum with photographs of banknotes from Africa. For South Africa has currency as old as 1896, from 1909 for Angola, British West Africa from 1918, from the Belgian Congo 1914, from French West Africa 1929, from Germa East Africa 1905, from the BCEAO "Banknotes of West African States" 1959, Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1956 and more. Site from Asheville, North Carolina. [KF] 

Barnes, Andrew - Aryanizing Projects, African Collaborators and Colonial Transcripts
Full text article. 15 p. in PDF. On British colonial policy re northern Nigeria, Islam, the Fulani, Christian missionaries. Footnotes. In Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Vol. XVII, No. 2, 1997. Published by Duke University Press. [KF]

Barrera, Giulia - "Dangerous Liaisons: Colonial Concubinage in Eritrea, 1890-1941"
Full text in Adobe PDF. PAS Working Paper No. 1 (1996) from Northwestern University's Program of African Studies.

Barry, Boubacar - Collection Boubacar Barry
In French. (Historical writings on the Futa Jalon from the collection of Professor Boubacar Barry. Digitized by the West African Research Center, Dakar Senegal). From the African Online Digital Library, a project of Michigan State University, IFAN, and WARC.
Contents include:

  • Histoire de la r?gion de Bok?. Monographie du Rio Numez.
  • Par l'Administrateur J. FIGAROL. D'avril 1911 ? fin 1912. 117 pages, in MS Word. "Located in the mountains of today's Guinea Conakry,....., the Futa became an Islamic state (using the expression Almamate, from "imam") over the course of the 18th century as Fulbe (Fulani) lineages mobilized their supporters against a variety of Mandinka chiefdoms who had dominated the area."
  • Rapport sur l'Expédition de la Haute Gambie. Author unknown. Publication date unknown. 44 pages, in MS Word.

Bergman, Albert - "On board the "Pensacola". The eclipse expedition to the west coast of Africa" (New York : s.n., 1890)
Short excerpt from an 1890 book on a U.S. expedition to observe the solar eclipse. "Starting in the mid-nineteenth century, the colonial powers of Europe and the United States sent expeditions all over the globe to observe solar eclipses. From San Francisco's Exploratorium,"a museum of science, art, and human perception founded in 1969 by physicist Frank Oppenheimer."

Binghamton University, Libraries
Holds the William J. Haggerty Collection of French Colonial History. The Haggerty Collection includes publications from the former library of the Union Coloniale française (later Comite Central Francais pour l'Outre-Mer). "20,000 items documenting social, economic and political history, primarily in the French colonies in Africa and Asia in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Most of the collection consists of printed materials published between the late nineteenth century and the mid-1950s." Binghamton was formerly the State University of New York at Binghamton. 

Boston University. African Studies Center. Africa in the K-12 Classroom
Teaching tips and articles, Curriculum Guide: “How Big is Africa?”, podcasts, resources by grade level, lesson plans & activities, read aloud books with video (Wangari Maathai), videos about African languages, activities, etc.

British Broadcasting Company. The Story of Africa
"...the history of the continent from an African perspective." "from the origins of humankind to the end of South African apartheid" by major African historians (Jacob Ajayi, George Abungu, Director-General of the National Museums of Kenya and others). Includes audio of each segment of the BBC program. (Requires sound card, speaker or headphone). Each segment has a timeline, bibliography, useful links.

The British Empire
The compiler writes "This site is not a rigourous academic site!" An attractive site with graphics and full text articles on events in Ethiopia, South Africa, a small section on Africa, biographies including Cecil Rhodes, a "Library" with abstracts of books such as "Plain Tales from the Dark Continent," timelines, uniforms, cigarette cards, cartoons, illustrations from Punch magazine, railroads, links to African history sites, company histories, and other resources. Maintained by Stephen Luscombe who teaches English in Kuwait.

British Empire and Commonwealth Museum (Bristol, U.K.)
The Museum collections include archives, artifacts, photographs, costumes. The Archives house interviews, films, photographs, audio recordings including on the Mau Mau in Kenya. Its country section has snapshots of British colonial history. The Commonwealth Today section gives each country's area, population, language, currency, flag and location on a map. Publishes historical studies.

British History Online
From the Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust. Database of primary and secondary sources. List of the British Secretaries of State 1794-1870. If you register (free), you can save a personal bookshelf of links to useful resources and use a split screen feature to compare two documents simultaneously. Based in London.
Full text of the House of Commons Journal. Examples:

  • Report from Committee on Sierra Leone, No. 661. From: 'House of Commons Journal Volume 85: 13 July 1830', Journal of the House of Commons: volume 85: 1830, pp. 640-45. URL:
  • Petitions for abolition of Slavery. From: 'House of Commons Journal Volume 85: 13 July 1830', Journal of the House of Commons: volume 85: 1830, pp. 640-45. URL:

British Museum - Africa
The Museum holds African sculpture, textiles, graphic arts, objects from Ancient Egypt, money. Use the COMPASS database to locate African objects in these categories and others. The database comprises selections from the Museum's collections. [KF]

British Pathe Film Archive
A rich video news archive covering historical events, sport, social history and entertainment from 1896 to 1970. Obtain free low resolution video clips after the free registration. High resolution copies for PowerPoint Presentations and Web Publishing require a license fee.* The purpose of the site is mainly educational use. Commercial users who wish to order a videotape or DVD must order through a British Pathe librarian. The original film is 35mm. The free downloaded files may be e-mailed to others. By spring 2003, JPEG images will be available. For best search results, one needs to use a one word search such as Kenya or Nigeria and then look through the entire results. [KF]
Examples of video clips: the Mau Mau in Kenya, the 1956 trip to Nigeria of Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh, the 1952 trip to Kenya of Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh, visit to South Africa of the Royal Family, the first local government election in Lagos 1950, Commonwealth conferences, the Emir of Katsina, visit to the U.K. of Nigerian emirs, the 1964 OAU meeting in Tanzania, the 1969 population census in Kenya, Tanganyika Independence 1961 (in color), 1967 African leaders meeting in Kampala, 1963 Kenya Independence, the 1952 opening of Ibadan University, Nigerian Independence 1960, Tom Mboya's funeral 1969, the 1966 assassination of H. F. Verwoerd (President of South Africa), Colonial Secretary Oliver Lyttleton's tour of Nigeria 1952. [KF] * Higher quality hard copy on VHS (PAL format only) can be ordered. "There are three options for purchasing clips; single stories can be bought for £18 each, up to 7 stories costs £75, and 8 or more stories costs £10 each, all inclusive of VAT. Postage and Packing is an additional £2.25 for customers inside the United Kingdom, £10.00 for customers outside the United Kingdom."

Cable & Wireless, A History - Africa, Early Years
One page history of the British company's telegraph service to Africa, includes South Africa.

Cambridge University Press - Race and Power: Legacies of Colonialism
"a quarterly updated assortment of free online book chapters and journal articles that explores the intertwining concepts of race and power, on a global scale, from an interdisciplinary perspective."

Includes -

  • Chains of Remembrance’: Livingstone, Sentimental Imperialism & Britain's Africa Conversation, 1913– 2013
  • Joanna Lewis, London School of Economics and Political Science
  • Introduction: postcolonial literature in a changing historical frame
  • By Ato Quayson
  • Edited by Ato Quayson, University of Toronto
  • Law, labour and resistance to French colonialism in Sembene Ousmane's Les Bouts de Bois de Dieu
  • Law, labour and resistance to French colonialism in Sembene Ousmane's Les Bouts de Bois de Dieu
  • Ambreena Manji

Cameroon Ethnography and History - "Mama for Story"
A festschrift for E. M. Chilver, appearing in three different publications, has been produced. The introductions to these three projects are online.
Early Mambila Documents
Perspectives on the State: From Political History to Ethnography in Cameroon. Essays for Sally Chilver. Editors' introduction by Ian Fowler and David Zeitlyn.
African Crossroads: Intersections between History and Ethnography in Cameroon.
Preface, introductory material by Shirley Ardener, Ian Fowler, and David Zeitlyn.
Special Issue of the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford (JASO), Vol. 26, No. 1, July 1996. Introduction by Ian Fowler and David Zeitlyn.

CAMP. Catalog of Nigerian Pamphlets on Microfilm. Compiled by the African Collection, Yale University Library, New Haven, Connecticut for the Cooperative Africana Microform Project and the Center for Research Libraries.
Full text, 60 pages, in Adobe pdf. Citations to 1,000 pamphlets on microfilm. Included are market literature titles from the Simon Ottenberg collection. Types of pamphlets - Nigeria, Biafra, Southern Nigeria , British Colonial Office, government publications, market literature, political party pamphlets, church and religious pamphlets, magazines and other serials. Authors include Obafemi Awolowo, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Samuel A.Crowther, the Action Party, N.C.N.C. Dates range from the late 19th century to pre-World War II and the mid 1960s. Languages - English, Yoruba, Ibo, Hausa. There is an index by author and subject. The microfilmed pamphlets are available from CAMP, Cooperative African Micoform Project, based at the Center for Research Libraries, Chicago. The inventory is part of CAMP's Guides to Collections, Select Pamphlet Collections. [KF]

Cartes Postales d'Afrique de l'ouest, 1895-1930 / West African Postcards
An exhibit of historical postcards of Mali (Soudan francais) and West Africa from a cd-rom (960 francs) produced by l'Association Images & Memoires and UNESCO. Shows Bamako, Tombouctou, Bandiagara, women, colonial scenes, chiefs (Sidi Moctar, Behanzin, Samory Toure en captivit?, Oba of Benin, notables from Mossi, Sierra Leone, Accra). Hosted on the Universit? Laval (Canada) site.

Center for Research Libraries - Documents on African Political History, 1938-1970: compiled by Ruth Schachter Morgenthau
An inventory of African political party materials (1945-1963) and government documents (1938-1970). Full text, in pdf. 18 pages. "The collection, comprising 23 microfilm reels, contains core documentation and important primary resource material used as a basis for Dr. Morgenthau's prize-winning book, "Political Parties in French Speaking West Africa." (1965 winner of the Melville J. Herskovits award)." Includes trade union publications, R.D.A. publications, French policy in Africa, pan-african conferences. Covers Dahomey (Benin), Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Senegal, Soudan (Mali), Belgian Congo, Cameroun, Ghana, Federation of Rhodesia & Nyasaland, Togo, Gambia, Uganda, etc."The newspapers and serials contained within the collection have been cataloged separately and contain a number of unique titles not previously referenced in OCLC. A listing of these titles may be found by searching the Center's catalog with the series title "Documents on African Political History." The 28 reel collection can be borrowed by CAMP members and CRL members. Non-members pay $110 for interlibrary loan.

Center for Research Libraries - England in Africa
Special issue of the Center's on-line newsletter, Focus on Global Resources, featuring the Center's holdings on British colonial Africa. Has an 11 page PDF list of the various microfilm collections called - "GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO AFRICAN COUNTRIES PRIOR TO INDEPENDENCE [Annual departmental reports relating to Africa in microform] [Government publications relating to Africa in microform]" Links to a list of libraries holding Government Gazettes. List of CRL/CAMP's holdings of British National Archives Original Correspondence from various African entities. The full text documents listed are only open to CRL members. [Stanford users, please note, Stanford is not a CRL member.]

Centre Culturel Fran?ais (in Benin)
In French. Has an online exhibit and articles about, "1848-1998, 150 ans d'abolition de l'esclavage."

Centre de Recherche sur la Littérature des Voyages, CRLV
In French. "fondé en 1984 est une équipe d’accueil de l’École doctorale de Littératures françaises et comparée de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne (Paris IV)." Provides a listing of monographs and articles on the web regarding travel in Africa. Their Newsletter, Lettres du Voyageur, has citations to recent theses (such as Les Récits de voyage en Afrique subsaharienne aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, by Paulo Alves Vaz, DEA de Littérature et civilisation françaises, Université Paris-Sorbonne, septembre 2004, 95 p., Directeur : François Moureau). Has audio files of conference presentations. An online citations database of travel-related documents (from the 16th-17th-18th centuries) provides travel dates, destination, countries visited, library location for each manuscript, map or published work cited.

Centre des archives d'outre-mer - Exposition virtuelle sur Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza
In French. French explorer, founder of Brazzaville, Congo, Governor of the French Congo, born in Italy, 1852-1905. Biography, colonial history of Gabon, Congo River, slavery, photographs, illustrations, original documents. Chronology, bibliography. Includes 3-D Flash animated introduction and audio which requires a sound card and headset or speakers. From the Centre des archives d’outre-mer (Archives nationales, Aix-en-Provence). [KF]

Centre Edmond Fortier
In Dutch, English, French. Photographs by Edmond Fortier on historical postcards,1900 - 1910. Has an exhibition of postcards from Tombouctou (1906), Benin (1908), Saint-Louis (1900), Djenné (1905). "Includes photographs of l 'Almami" Samori Touré, the son of El Hajj Umar. As photographer and publisher of postcards, he visited Senegal and Guinea, Mali in 1906, Ivory- coast, Benin and Lagos in 1908..." Sells copies of the postcards. Site maintained by Jacques Krekelaar.

Colonial Film: Moving Images of The British Empire
"...scholarly and archival project to investigate the history of moving images of the British Empire." "will produce a detailed online catalogue of the entire corpus of films representing British colonies either factually or fictionally held by the British Film Institute, the Imperial War Museum, and the British Empire and Commonwealth Museum." Will produce "30 hours of digitised film." Has sample catalog entries. Site hosted by the British Film Institute.

Commonwealth War Graves Commission
The Commission maintains graves / memorials throughout the world for members of the Commonwealth forces who died in World Wars I and II. Has statistics on the number of Commonwealth war dead commemorated by country, for ex. 50,000 + in Kenya, 8,000 + in South Africa,  5,000 + in Tanzania, 4,000 + in Nigeria, 900+ in Eritrea, etc. Select "Global Commitment" then "breakdown by country."

"This report estimates that between 45,000 and 54,000 casualties (predominantly Indian, East African, West African, Egyptian and Somali personnel) were commemorated unequally. A further 116,000 casualties (predominantly, but not exclusively, East African and Egyptian personnel) but potentially as many as 350,000, were not commemorated by name or possibly not commemorated at all."

April 21, 2021 article by Robert Booth from the U.K. Guardian.

New York Times article, Fallen British Empire Soldiers Were Overlooked Because of Racism, Inquiry Finds, by Isabella Kwai, April 22, 2021.

Compact Memory
In German. German Jewish periodicals from 1806-1938 full text online. Find through a keyword search references to Africa-related topics. Project of the German Reseach Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG).

Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East (CSSAAME)
Trade, Politics, and Identity in the Colonial Indian Ocean. Volume XIX, No. 2, 1999 is a special issue guest edited by Edward A. Alpers. Pub. by Duke University Press. Full text articles include:

  • Edward Alpers - Introduction. Trade, Politics and Identity in the Colonial Indian Ocean 2 p. in PDF
  • Vijaya Teelock: The Influence of Slavery in the Formation of Creole Identity; [Mauritius]
  • Erik Gilbert: Sailing from Lamu and Back: Labor Migration and Regional Trade in Colonial East Africa
  • Charles Schaefer: "Selling at a Wash": Competition and the Indian Merchant Community in Aden Crown Colony
  • James R. Brennan: South Asian Nationalism in an East African Context: The Case of Tanganyika, 1914-1956.

Conference in Commemoration of Amilcar Cabral, Cape Verdean Progressive Club, East Providence, RI, July 6, 2002 - Amilcar Cabral and His Legacy
Photographs from the conference a few full text papers:

  • "Amilcar Cabral in Colonial Guinea-Bissau: Context, Challenges and Conquests" by Dr. Peter Karibe Mendy of Rhode Island College (12 pages in Adobe pdf).
  • "Amilcar Cabral on Internationalism: Policies, Practices, Promises and Problems" by Richard Lobban, Professor of African Studies, Rhode Island College (6 pages, in Adobe pdf). Hosted on the Rhode Island Historical Preservation and Heritage Commission website.

Le Congo Par Ses Timbres 1891 / 1991
Has photographs of stamps from the former French Congo, a bibliography of articles on the stamps in Colfra bulletin. The site owner is a member of Association Philat?lique des Collectionneurs de Timbres Poste des Anciennes Colonies Fran?aises.

Congregation du Saint-Esprit (Montreal)
Includes biographies of missionaries serving in Africa:

Cornell University, Library. Making of America
"...a digital library of primary sources [mainly from 1840 - 1900] in American social history from the antebellum period through reconstruction." Has scanned images of the full text of books and articles. A search on Cecil Rhodes, for example, produces 102 matches in 57 journal articles. Examples of article titles: The Ultimate Triumph of the Boers, Briton and Boer in South Africa, Military Problems in South Africa, A French General's Defense of the Boers, The Historical Causes of the Present War in South Africa, Problems of the Transvaal, The Responsibility of Cecil Rhodes. [KF]

Davis, Richard Harding- "Real Soldiers of Fortune"
Full text of the book (New York: C. Scribner's sons, 1911, 228 pp.) Includes:

  • Accounts of a young Winston Churchill's escape from a South African prison during the Boer War (South African War)
  • American Frederick Russell Burnham's participation in the 1st and 2nd Matabele Uprisings, the Boer War, his killing of Umlimo, and brief mention of his visits to Ashanti and East Africa. Part of Project Gutenberg Etext. [KF]

Des frontières en Afrique du XIIe au XXe siècle.
In French. Full text book. Paris: UNESCO, 2005. 313 pages, in PDF. Papers from a 1999 Bamako conference. Includes authors - Alpha Oumar Konaré, président de la République du Mali, Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, Boubacar Barry, Anthony I. Asiwaju, Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Pierre Kipré, Patrick Harries, Thierno Bah, Martin Z. Njeuma, Sékéné Mody Cissokom and others. Topics include - quel avenir pour les frontières africaines ?, cas en Afrique australe et orientale, cas en Afrique centrale, l’exemple des chefferies Bamiléké et du royaume Bamum, la frontière entre le Cameroun et le Nigeria (1885-1992), cas en Afrique du Nord et du Nord-Ouest, les frontières du Songhaï à la fin du XVe et au XVIe siècle, le Soudan-Mali du XVIIe au XIXe siècle, le Burkina Faso et ses voisins aux XIXe et XXe siècles, etc.

Die Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (DKG) Bildarchiv
In English and German. The Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main has put on-line a large keyword searchable database of colonial era photographs, 1822-1936, from the archives of the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft [German Colonial Society], a major organization behind Germany's colonial expansion. Covers Namibia, Tanzania, Cameroon, Togo, etc.  One can click on the small photos to see a larger version. The database can be searched by Region, Subject Areas, Keyword, Person, Photographer, People. The collection, of thousands of photographs, is also being microfilmed for preservation. Description of the Image Collection of the German Colonial Society. [B.Lawrance and KF]

Dierks, Dr. Klaus - Namibia Library - History
"...the first complete chronology on Namibian history from the precolonial times to the date of independence (1990) and the story of the only so far discovered ruins of precolonial Namibia (//Khauxa!nas)..." Has a history of Namibia telecommunications, a lecture on foreign aid, a history of Walvis Bay, reports on water, energy, roads, railways. Dr. Dierks is former Deputy Minister of the first Ministry of Roads and Transport (later Mines and Energy) in Namibia (until March 2000). Is now Chairman of Namibia's Energy Control Board.

Durham University. Sudan Archive
Online records:

  • Intelligence Reports 1889-1903. "Reports were published by the Egyptian Army, printing any reports from the Sudan and the area around it pertinent to the campaign against Mahdist Sudan and the defence of the Condominium."
  • Governor-General Reports, 1902-1952
  • "The reports for the years 1902-1914, when General Sir Reginald Wingate was Governor-General, are particularly valuable, containing a wealth of information and statistics on every aspect of the administration."

  • Staff Lists, 1899-1963
  • "contain the names of all Sudan Government employees, both British and Sudanese, from 1914-1963."

  • Government Gazettes, 1899-1970. 

  • Maps, photographs, exhibits and a blog.  Online catalog of books, periodicals and ephemeral material on the Sudan.
  • Archive of the papers of administrators from the Sudan Political Service, missionaries, soldiers, business men, doctors, agriculturalists, teachers and others. The papers are not online.  Includes the papers of Professor Robert O. Collins, General Sir Reginald Wingate, Sir Harold MacMichael, Sir James Robertson, and the Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund. Has some material from the post-independence period and papers relating to countries bordering the Sudan.

Eboué, Félix
Eboué, Governor of Chad, during World War II, aligned with Charles de Gaulle's Free French Forces in defiance of the Vichy regime. Eboué, originally from French Guiana, became Governor-General of French Equatorial Africa. He is buried in the Pantheon in Paris.
Centre des Archives d'Outre Mer. Exposition Félix Eboué, Pantheon, Paris. In French. October 14 - November 5, 2004, the Centre held a conference and exhibition in Paris celebrating the 60th anniversary of the death of Eboué. Photographs from Eboué's life (at the Ecole coloniale, map of French Equatorial Africa, letter from General de Gaulle to Eboué, Eboué at the Brazzaville Conference, etc. [KF]
Exposition FÉLIX EBOUÉ à la Médiathèque Caraïbe. In French. Biography and bibliography.

Ekpolitan Project 
In English, Spanish, French, Portuguese.  "an archive of family history sources on established and modern migrant communities in 19th and 20th century Lagos, Nigeria. ....directed by Professor Abosede George, a Lagos native and scholar of modern African History at Barnard College and Columbia University in New York City." The project will collect and digitize historical records.

Elwin International Tour
"Offers package tours to Ghana. Focus is on black history, education, ecology and leisure. Visits to Slave Castles of 15/16th centuries, game reserves, festivals and other historic sites." An Elmina-Java Museum detailing the history of "The Black Dutchmen" will open in October 2002. Contains an account of "The Black Dutchmen: The Story of African Soldiers in The Netherlands East Indes."

EmpireHist Discussion List
" e-mail discussion group whose primary focus is the history of the British Empire and Commonwealth from the 15th century onwards. The list is open to all persons interested in the British Empire and in British colonial and imperial history."

Exposition universelle de Bruxelles 1910
In French. "Ce site présente l'exposition universelle de Bruxelles 1910 à travers les cartes postales et documents de la collection personnelle de Xavier Languy." Has postcards of the pavillions for Congo, Madagascar, Mozambique.

Le Fait Missionnaire (Histoire et H?ritage -- Approche Pluridisciplinaire)
Has the table of contents for this journal (published in Lausanne, Switzerland) on missionary history in Africa.

France. Bibliotheque nationale. Gallica
In French. "Gallica propose un accès à 70 000 ouvrages numérisés, à plus de 80 000 images et à plusieurs dizaines d'heures de ressources sonores." Huge online library of full text books, serials, and images.

France. Bibliotheque nationale. Voyages en Afrique
In French. "900 volumes de textes, 30 titres de revues, 80 cartes venant des collections imprimees de la BnF, 20 heures d'enregistrements sonores des fonds du Musee de la parole et du geste et 6500 photographies issues des fonds de la Societe de geographie." Access documents by type (books, journals, maps, photographs), geographic area, era. Part of the French national library's Gallica site.
Contents include:

  • Maps of peoples and kingdoms, colonial history, physical map, antique maps, nautical maps
  • Full text books, journal articles, maps illustrating themes: L'Europe decouvre l'Afrique, L'Afrique des cultures, Histoire coloniale : la France en Afrique, L'Afrique vue depuis la France
  • Journal articles (Bulletins de la Societe d'anthropologie de Paris; Bulletin de la Societe de geographie de Paris; le Tour du Monde, 1860-191; La Geographie; Bulletin de la Societe de geographie commerciale de Bordeaux; Revue maritime et coloniale, Annales des voyages, de la geographie et de l'histoire: Nouvelles annales des voyages, de la geographie et de l'histoire and many more.
  • A Bibliography and a Chronology and Music from the 1930s and earlier (see L'Afrique vue depuis la France)

French Colonial Historical Society / Société d'histoire coloniale française
"...encourages interest in the scholarly study of all French colonizing activity and in the history of all French colonies." Publishes a newsletter and the annual issue of the Proceedings. "awards the Heggoy Prize annually for an outstanding book on French colonial history, and it presents the Eccles Prize to the best paper by a graduate student delivered at an FCHS conference and subsequently submitted for publication by the Society."

George Mason University. Center for History and New Media - Women in World History
Primary sources about women and gender with guidelines to using primary sources. Sources include excerpts from the 17th c. Journal of Jan van Riebeeck, letters of the grand-daughter of Jan van Riebeeck, rock art of the San, drawings, narrative of the Cape (Southern Africa) 1705 to 1713, the situation of slaves in the Cape, letter of Mary Moffat, narrative by Mary Kingsley, autobiography of Buchi Emecheta, African novels, excerpt from Tsitsi Dangarembga's novel Nervous Conditions.
Has a case study by Beverly Mack on Nana Asma'u, Muslim Woman Scholar and one by Jeremy D. Popkin, The Calling of Katie Makanya (South Africa 1873-1956) and a classroom module on Cultural Contact in Southern Africa (17th century including slavery). Holds online forums for teachers; the forum beginning October 1, 2005 is Women in World History. Beginning November 2005 is a forum on Women in Africa.

Gold Coast, Annual departmental reports relating to the Gold Coast and British Togoland.
Microform Academic Publishers sells 112 microfilm reels of the Annual departmental reports relating to the Gold Coast and British Togoland. [East Ardsley, Wakefield, Yorkshire, England : EP Microform, 1979- 1980. 112 microfilm reels. Series: Government publications relating to African countries prior to independence.] There is an online guide to the microfilm collection - 15 p. in PDF. Some libraries have the microfilm. Partial holdings - U. Wisconsin, U. of Glasgow. Complete holdings: Emory U.; CAMP-CRL.

Gold Coast, Government publications relating to the Gold Coast, 1846-1957
Microform Academic Publishers sells 151 microfilm reels called Government publications relating to the Gold Coast, 1846-1957 [ East Ardsley, Yorkshire : EP Microform Ltd. ; 151 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.] Contents are Blue Books, the Gold Coast Gazette, and some Annual Reports. There is an online guide to the microfilm collection - 12 p. in PDF. Some libraries have partial or complete holdings of the microfilm - Howard, Emory, Florida State, CAMP-CRL, U. of Pennsylvania.

Graham (Billy) Center Archives, Wheaton College, IL
Collections on African Christianity from mainly North American Protestant missionaries and some African churches and organizations. Most records are 20th century; 75% concern east or central Africa. Examples are the diaries of Bernard Litchman, a health officer in Zaire from 1917 to 1961, and Elwood Davis, a physician, in Kenya 1910 to 1949. Collections include those of the Africa Inland Mission and individual missionaries. Has the text of an interview with Paul P. Stough, a missionary with the Africa Inland Mission in Zaire (from 1928 to the early 1960s) during Belgian colonial rule which offers insights into relations with the Zairois, Belgian officials, the Catholic missions, etc. Its Images of Colonial Africa exhibit are photographs by missionary Laura Collins of Kenya, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), and Uganda in the early 1900s. A 48 page list of the Graham Center's Africa-related collections is available by e-mail from:

Great Britain. Colonial Office. Sectional List No. 34 (in Adobe PDF)
For those with access to British command papers, this is a subject index to some of these documents, mainly for the 1950s (scanned from the print publication, London, H.M.S.O., 1961). In addition, publications designated Colonial no. can be found by subject, region/country, and by colonal no. From the library finding aids at Stanford Univ. [KF]

Great Britain. Public Record Office. - Southern Rhodesia Seal Matrices, Elizabeth II
The PRO's Virtual Museum shows "seal matrices for the seal of Southern Rhodesia, with their copper counterpart." Click on the photo for a closeup. Part of the Empire section whicn includes an Empire map.

Gross-Friedrichsburg in Princess Town Ghana
In English and German. About a film and book, "Rote Adler an Afrikas K?ste. Die brandenburgisch-preu?ische Kolonie Gro?friedrichsburg in Westafrika" on a Prussian fort on the coast of Ghana built by Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg (1640 - 1688)." Includes a chronology, map, Site by Selignow, publisher of the book on the Prussian fort. The "Brandenburg - Princess Town - Eine Welt e.V." association supports maintainence of the fort.

H-French-Colonial: H-Net Network on the History of French Colonialism
Moderated discussion list sponsored by the French Colonial Historical Society.
To subscribe send an email message to:
Leave out styled text, signatures.
In the Message area put: sub H-French-Colonial firstname lastname, institution
Or Subscribe at
For online help with your subscription, see: or email:

Histoire de la colonisation belge du Congo
In French. Includes interviews with Adam Hochschild and Jules Marchal, maps (Congo in 1900, Katanga, the districts), photographs, a bibliography, the Dec. 2000 article "L?opold II, Baudouin et la commission Lumumba," information on a play about Belgian colonization, links to related sites, etc. Maintained by Patrick Cloos, based in Montreal.

Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century- from Matthew White
Has a map of Africa in the early 1900s showing colonial possessions, a map of the Maji Maji rebellion 1905-1906, boundaries of the former Biafra (Nigeria), Southern Africa 1968-1975, the Chad civil war mid to late 1980s, Sudan civil war 1983. M. White is a librarian, see his FAQ. The Systems of Government maps are not quite accurate.

Indiana University Libraries. Nuer Field Notes
A project to "preserve and make accessible a set of linguistic field notes [on the Nuer language] recorded by Eleanor Vandevort, who was a missionary in the South Sudan between 1949 and 1963." Includes the full text of the book, A Leopard Tamed, by Eleanor Vandevort, a biography of Eleanor Vandevort, by Dr. Marion Frank-Wilson, a History of Colonial and Missionary Linguistics in the Southern Sudan, by Dr. Edward Miner, Pedagogical Grammar of Nuer, slides of life in Southern Sudan, and a bibliography. [KF]

Institut National de l'Audiovisuel, INA
The INA houses French archives of radio and TV broadcasts. Listen to "Aimé Césaire, poète et homme politique, au 1er congrès mondial des écrivains et des artistes noirs" in 1956.

Institiute of Social Studies, Netherlands
"The ISS is an international institute of higher education on social and economic change with a focus on development processes. It was founded 50 years ago by the Dutch universities to assist in the training and further education of professionals, especially from developing countries." Many ISS Working Papers are in full text online.
Example - Proletarianisation, agency and changing rural livelihoods : forced labour and resistance in colonial Mozambique / Bridget O'Laughlin - 2001

Integration and Conflict along the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa)
On Facebook. Must be on Facebook to access site. Research group based at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in Halle/Saale, Germany. "a scientific platform of communication for all those interested in this particular region, its global connections and diasporas world-wide." Dr. Jacqueline Knoerr is Head of the Group.

International Census Collection Online Catalog, University of Texas (Austin)
A bibliography of census holdings from the 1940s-1990s, mainly population and housing censuses. Lists African censuses. "Census volumes may be borrowed through interlibrary loan by libraries in the United States except when materials are fragile or in cases where the University of Texas at Austin holds the only known copy."

International Council on Archives
The ICA's membership includes national archives in Africa and elsewhere. Has a national archives directory, an archives socities directory, and a personal name index.

Internet African History Sourcebook - Paul Halsall
Has full-text sources for African history arranged by topics. Includes the Black Athena Debate, human origins, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, Islam in Africa, West African kingdoms, Great Zimbabwe, religion, the slave trade, excerpts from "Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, The African" (London, 1789),  David Livingstone, excerpt from Edward Morel's Black Man's Burden, 1903, Nkrumah, the "Loi-Cadre" of June 23, 1956, Jomo Kenyatta speech 1952, Arusha Declaration, 1967, speech by Kenneth Kaunda on African Development and Foreign Aid (1966), statements/speeches on Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence 1965, and more. Maintained by Paul Halsall, Fordham University. [KF]

Interval Signals Archive. Southern African Clandestines
Has audio clips of Radio Freedom, the voice of the African National Congress during the 1970s. (requires a sound card, Real Player). The Radio Zambia clip has short segment of Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika. Also has clips from SWAPO's Voice of Namibia, the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Voice, the Voice of Free Africa (a conservative station), UNITA's the Voice of the Cockerel, and the Voice of Free Africa (an anti-SWAPO station). Web site based in Reading, Berkshire, U.K. [KF]

Journal of African History (Cambridge University Press)
Full text access to recent issues for those at institutions subscribing to the print journal. Ask your librarian for the username and password. The articles are in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. The PDF files are very large.

Journal of World History
Official journal of the World History Association. Published by the University of Hawaii Press.
Articles include:

Landais, Etienne - Sur les doctrines des v?t?rinaires coloniaux fran?ais en Afrique noire
In French. Full text article. 39 p. in PDF. In Cahiers des Sciences Humaines (1990, Vol. 26, No 1-2, p. 33-71.) Has a bibliography. Vol. 26, Nos. 1/2 also contains other articles such as Derrière les clôtures . . .Essai d’histoire comparée de ranchs africains by Jean Boutrais. The Cahiers.... were formerly the Cahiers ORSTOM, série Sciences Humaines.

Landau, Paul - "Photography and Colonial Vision"
Excerpt from a 1999 draft essay by Prof. Landau, History Dept., Yale University. To be pub. in "Images and Empires: Visuality in Colonial and Post-Colonial Africa," edited by Paul S. Landau and Deborah Kaspin). (H-Africa's Africa Forum #6)

Library of Congress. French-speaking West Africa; a guide to official publications
compiled by Julian W. Witherell, African Section
Washington, General Reference and Bibliography Division, Library of Congress, 1967
Online publication in Hathi Trust.

Lire les femmes écrivains et les littératures africaines / Francophone African Literature
From the Dept. of French Studies, University of Western Australia on Francophone African writers, esp. women writers. Includes interviews in French with the writers by the Dept. and from Amina magazine, information on the literature of Benin, Cameroun, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinee, Mali, Senegal, Zaire, biographical information on the writers, bibliographies, and a directory of Francophone African book publishers, summaries of books by women authors during the colonial period. Editor of the site is J. Volet.

Maji Maji Bibliography Project
Project by students in the African Studies Department of Humboldt-University at Berlin, Germany. "About 100 years ago, in late July 1905, the Maji Maji rebellion broke out in the Matumbi Hills in southern Tanzania. It was the greatest challenge German colonial rule ever faced in East Africa, leading to far reaching administrative and political reforms in the colony." Contains citations to and annotations on 67 "articles published by contemporary observers in German newspapers and journals - which non-German speakers often have great difficulties to locate." Also has chapters from books. "The main criterion for inclusion was whether the author was a direct observer of the events of 1905-1907." Has indexes to persons, places, and groups. The articles (bibliography) can be arranged by source or author.

Mali Interactive
Accounts of archaeological excavations and information on the people and culture of Jenn?. The project leaders include Rod and Susan McIntosh from Rice University's Anthropology Dept. A goal is to save archaeological information from destruction by erosion. Jenn? is the earliest known urban settlement south of the Sahara and a UNESCO World Heritage site. Photos, news, teaching resources, information on Mali and archaeology. Questions about archaeology and Mali. Links to a historical geography unit for grade 6 on Timbuktu and the Niger River by Ginny White.

[Mandume ya Ndemufayo] President Unveils Hero’s Monument
Speech, Friday, February 08, 2002, by Namibia's President Sam Nujoma at the unveiling of a monument to King Mandume ya Ndemufayo. "King Mandume ya Ndemufayo, died fighting the Portuguese and British-South African colonial troops at the Oihole village in 1917." Gives an extended account of Mandume's resistance struggle against the British-South African and Portuguese forces. From the Namibia Government official web site's News Archive.

Maps (Historical) of Africa - Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection, Univ. of Texas at Austin
The Univ. of Texas has historical African maps online. Some are very large; best to access only on a fast connection. They also have links to historical map sites some having maps of Africa. African maps:

Marguerat, Yves - Lom?, un siecle d'images, 1884-1990
In French. The site Togo Contact from the Centre SYFED-REFER de Lom? (a research network) has photographs and some text from Marguerat's book, Lome un siecle d'images, 1884-1990 (Lom? : Presses de l'Universite du Benin, [1993-1996,  v. 1-2) which is an economic history of Lom?. Shows hotels, business leaders, factories, rail/air transport, markets, craftsmen, etc.

The Material Culture of Twins in West Africa - History
"The treatment of twins in West Africa is particularly unusual, possibly due to the high twin rate in this area." Includes twin myths, a history of Cameroon with bibliography, a slide show of Cameroon scenes and art work. Site by Rachael Sydenham-Ndi,an undergraduate at Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada, working on an honour's thesis in the Archaeology Department.

Matowanyika, Joseph Z. Z. - History of Land Use in Zimbabwe from 1900
Paper prepared for the Leadership for Environment and Development 1997 conference.
About LEAD:

Media History of Tanzania
Site on Tanzania press freedom; does not work in the Netscape browser. Has a slide show on the press history of Tanzania "From Msimulizi to Majira. From Afrika Kwetu to the Zanzibar Voice. From 1888 to the present."
"The Media History of Tanzania" (by Martin Sturmer, Ndanda Mission Press, Ndanda 1999, 979 kb).
"Watchdog in Chains: Media Regulations in Tanzania from their Colonial Beginnings to the Era of Democratisation" (by Ayub Rioba and Martin Sturmer, in: Stefan Brüne [ed.]: Neue Medien und Öffentlichkeiten, Schriften des Deutschen Übersee Instituts, Hamburg 2000, 128 kb). 32 p.

Miller, Joseph - "History and Africa / Africa and History"
Miller's American Historical Association Presidential Address, 8 January 1999.   "A much longer, slightly differently focused text with full documentation will be published in the first issue for 1999 of the American Historical Review." The oral presentation is hosted by the Southeast Regional Seminar in African Studies (SERSAS).

Mountain Voices
A rich resource. "interviews with over 300 people who live in mountain and highland regions round the world. Their testimonies offer a personal perspective on change and development." To access the interviews, one needs to register and fill out a questionnaire. Interviews from Lesotho, Kenya, Ethiopia, gathered by the Oral Testimony Programme of the Panos Institute. Topics discussed include agriculture, community, conflict, culture, development, economics, education, employment, environment, family life, festivals, food security, forestry, gender, health, history, identity, industry, crime, land, migration, politics, spiritual beliefs, tourism, etc. [KF]

Mozambique - David Forrest
Slide show with study questions, profile of Samora Machel, visit with the Mozambique Ambassador, interview with a Portuguese soldier in Mozambique, page on history. Prepared for a World Studies class at James Logan High School, Union City, California by David Forrest.

Mozambique On-Line - Wim Neeleman
In Portuguese. Annotated directory of web sites about Mozambique, arranged by subjects including traditional stories, photographs, history, etc. Based on a column by Neeleman in the e-newsletter, NoTMoc - Not?cias de Mo?ambique. Maintained by Wim Neeleman.

Musée royal de l'afrique centrale - The Memory of Congo: the Colonial Era and Congo: Nature and Culture
In French, English, Kiswahili. Two temporary exhibitions (Feb. 4 - Oct. 9, 2005) on the colonial history of the Congo and Belgium and on Congo Nature and Culture. Includes 44 page exhibition catalog in PDF, audio clips of music from the Munganga of Luabo and of Mbuti pygmees. [KF]
An extensive review of the exhibition is in the New York Times, February 9, 2005, B3, "Museum Show Forces Belgium to Ask Hard Questions About Its Colonial Past" by Alan Riding. "a remarkable exhibition here has set off a critical re-examination of Belgium's record in its only African colony."

Myers, Norman - Jouney of an Environmental Scientist
1998 interview with Myers, an environmental scientist and Fellow at Green College, Oxford University. He was a colonial administrator in Kenya in 1958 and has played a leading role in alerting the world to the loss of biodiversity. Includes Myers' photographs of Kenya's wildlife. [KF]

National  Archives of Nigeria. Enugu and Calabar - Rescuing Eastern Nigerian history: preserving the holdings of Enugu and Calabar regional archives (EAP052)
In Engish. Project background: or

  • The Catalogue:
  • EAP052/1 Selection of Records from the Office of the Secretary, Southern Provinces, Nigeria [1930s-1940s]
  • EAP052/2 Selection of Records from the Calabar Division Office, Calabar Province, Nigeria [1949-1955]
  • Contents as of 2019 were 7 records from the Enugu and Calabar Archives from the late 1800s to 1960. Southern Province Records, Intelligence Reports on Clans, Calabar Division Office Records, Petition from woman regarding her estate, Petitons / appeals against tax assessments in Calabar. [KF]
  • The Archives

National Archives of Nigeria, Kaduna - Northern Nigeria: Precolonial documents preservation scheme - major project (EAP535)
In English, Arabic, Hausa, Ajami. British colonial documents and Arabic and Hausa manuscripts. [KF]

  • Northern Province Secretariat, provincial files, Divisional & District Office records, court records, maps, photographs 1897-1920. Topics include slavery, Islam, labor, agriculture, culture, reform of Caliphate institutions.
  • Arabic & Hausa Manuscripts. Covers "the social, economic and political history of the Sokoto Caliphate (the largest 19th century Islamic empire in West Africa)" - local chronicles,  correspondence, legal documents, religious literature late 18th century to 1903.
  • The Archives.
  • Background on the British Library Endangered Archives project: or DOI:
  • Collection EAP087/2:"Selection of Records from the Office of the Secretary of the Northern Provinces, Nigeria"
  • Background on the National Archives, Kaduna.
  • A study based on the documents: "Convict labour in early colonial Northern Nigeria: a preliminary study," by Mohammed Bashir Salau. Chapter in "From Dust to Digital: Ten Years of the Endangered Archives Programme"  Maja Kominko (ed.) Cambridge : Open Book Publishers, 2016.    1 online resource. or

National Geographic - Forbidden Territory, Stanley's Search for Livingstone
National Geographic's TV program is available on for free with ads.

National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, United Kingdom - Port
"The National Maritime Museum (Greenwich, London) has the largest and best collection of maritime-related artefacts in the world." Sections include "Slavery" with images (and a paragraph on each image) of The Slave Trade, the Abolition Movement, Trade with Colonial Africa and the "Scramble for Africa." Has a timeline, a database connecting geographic locations to historical events, research guides for those doing in depth research.

National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections
An excellent resource for locating U.S. archival holdings on Africa. NUCMC is a database operated by the U.S. Library of Congress providing information on archival holdings in the U.S. To search select:  NUCMC Z39.50 Gateway to the RLIN AMC file. If you can't tell from the record which repository has the collection, select the Tagged Display option at the bottom of the page and scroll to the end of the Tagged Display screen. [KF]

Nkrumah Infosite
A biography, bibliography of books on Nkrumah, photographs, audio clips. Designed by Zizwe Mtafuta-Ukweli for R4R productions.

Northern Rhodesians Worldwide
Has a directory with biographical information on members, stories of life in Northern Rhodesia, historical photographs and excerpts from the "British South Africa Historical Catalogue & Souvenir of Rhodesia from the Empire Exhibition, Johannesburg, 1936-1937."

Northwestern University. Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies - African Posters
Has online images of 77 posters, part of a larger collection. Posters are from anti-apartheid movements, South Africa under apartheid, the 1994 South African election and Lusophone / Southern Africa liberation movements.

Northwestern University. Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies. Winterton Collection
The Humphrey Winterton Collection of East African (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zanzibar) photographs comprises c. 7,600 photographs taken primarily in East Africa between about 1860 and 1960. A sample of 101 images are on-line and album views. Has an inventory.

Northwestern University. PAS Working Papers Series
Full text papers, in Adobe pdf, showcase "writings in African studies by Northwestern faculty, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates, as well as work by PAS visiting scholars and resident research fellows."

  • PAS Working Paper No. 1 (1996) Dangerous Liaisons: Colonial Concubinage in Eritrea, 1890-1941 by Giulia Barrera
  • PAS Working Paper No. 6 (2000) Chacun pour soi: Africa and the French State 1958-1998 by Scott Greer
  • PAS Working Paper No. 9 (2000) Reimagining Tradition: The Politics of Succession in Colonial Buganda by Neil Kodesh

Old Africa: Stories from East Africa's Past (Kijabe, Kenya)
Kijabe, Kenya : Kifaru Educational and Editorial Consultants. On-line edition of the print magazine. "publishes stories, personal memories, and vintage photographs to recapture East Africa's recent history" up to the mid1960's. Selected stories on-line. Historic photo contest for each issue. [KF]

Pistes et recherche, Revue Scientifique (Institut Sup?rieur P?dagogique, Kikwit, DRC)
In French. Has full text articles from Volume 12, Num?ro 3, 1997, such as "Contribution ? l'histoire du recrutement de la main-d'oeuvre indig?ne au Congo-Belge. Cas du colonat europ?en au Kwilu (Bandundu) et ? Kalima (Maniema)" by SUNKEYI-DA Yekama-Yeyu.

Planum: European Journal of Planning
Information on German architecht, Ernst May (1886-1970), who was Town Planner in Kampala, Uganda, during the 1940s. Maps of Kampala, architectural drawings of housing schemes. Planum is the e-journal of the Planum Association which concerns urban development and environment preservation.

Pombe. Alcoholic Beverages in East Africa, 1850-1998
" of social and economic change in East Africa through the lens of alcohol." Making beer, selling it, taxing it, controlling it, beer wars, etc. A research project of the African Studies Centre, Cambridge University.

Postcards - Centre Edmond Fortier
In Dutch, English, French. Photographs by Edmond Fortier on historical postcards,1900 - 1910. Has an exhibition of postcards from Guinee (1905), Tombouctou (1906), Benin (1908), Saint-Louis (1900), Djenné (1905). "Includes photographs of l 'Almami" Samori Touré, the son of El Hajj Umar. As photographer and publisher of postcards, he visited Senegal and Guinea, Mali in 1906, Ivory- coast, Benin and Lagos in 1908..." Sells copies of the postcards. Site maintained by Jacques Krekelaar. [KF]

Postcards - Electronic African Postcards
Send historical African postcards. From a UNESCO site.

Postcards - West African Postcards / Cartes Postales d'Afrique de l'ouest, 1895-1930
An exhibit of historical postcards of Mali (Soudan francais) and West Africa from a cd-rom (960 francs) produced by l'Association Images & Memoires and UNESCO. Shows Bamako, Tombouctou, Bandiagara, women, colonial scenes, chiefs (Sidi Moctar, Behanzin, Samory Toure en captivit?, Oba of Benin, notables from Mossi, Sierra Leone, Accra). Hosted on the Universit? Laval (Canada) site.

Queen Victoria's Empire
Site for a public television special. Has a timeline, profiles of David Livingstone, Cecil Rhodes; take a quiz to win the Victoria Cross. Has lesson plans (in MS Word) including "The Role of Racism in Victoria's Empire." [KF]

Quinzaine coloniale (Paris)
In French. Full text issues of the 1901-1913 indexes are online.

Schmidt, Nancy - "Africana Resources for Undergraduates: A Bibliographic Essay"
An annotated by Dr. Schmidt (former Africana Librarian, Indiana University) to print and electronic database resources. Includes a section on History. Published in Phyllis M. Martin and Patrick O'Meara (eds.), Africa. Third edition. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995, pp. 413-434.)  " The author would like to point out that this essay, published in 1995 and written a year before, does not reflect some more recent publications and web resources."

Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
The well-known branch of the New York Public Library devoted to the history, society, and culture of people of African descent has an online exhibition, the Schomburg Legacy, Documenting the Global Black Experience for the 21st Century.  It features art work, historical documents and letters, the Herskovits Collection, the John Henrik Clarke Collection, the Ralph J. Bunche Collection and other.  The Schomburg's exhibition, Images of African-Americans from the 19th Century, includes photographs of diplomats to Liberia and Bishop Sameul A. Crowther, first African Anglican bishop. [KF]

Secrets of the Dead - Day of the Zulu
"In December 1878, Sir Henry Bartle Frere, the British High Commissioner in South Africa, issued an ultimatum to the Zulu ruler, Cetshwayo kaMpande, to disband his army and hand over control of his nation to a British representative." Questions for students. Interview with Ian Knight. Related web sites. Produced by Thirteen/WNET New York, Educational Broadcasting Corporation, Educational Broadcasting Corporation.

Shick, Tom W., Roll of the Emigrants to the Colony of Liberia Sent by the American Colonization Society from 1820-1843
The raw data and documentation which records all emigrants to Liberia between 1820-1843, brought by the American Colonization Society can be downloaded. The data set includes place of origin/arrival, status of individual, occupation, name of the ship which carried the emigrant, etc. Bundled with this is the data set, Liberian Census Data, 1843. The late,Tom Shick, Dept. of Afro-American Studies, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, was Principal Investigator of this project.

SIELEC, Société Internationale d’Etude des Littératures de l’Ere Coloniale
Full text articles. Profiles of writers. Publishes a journal, Cahiers; has the table of contents. SIELEC organizes conferences. "Par littératures de l’ère coloniale, nous entendons tous textes ou documents qui ont pu traiter du problème colonial, .......: Récits de voyages et d’exploration, romans inspirés par l’outre-mer, textes produits par les divers agents de la colonisation (administrateurs civils, militaires, missionnaires, enseignants, géographes et autres), textes et discours politiques, littérature de l’esclavage, rapports et relevés d’ethnologie, données d’anthropologie appliquée, littérature pour enfants, B.D. (de Tintin à Tarzan) manuels scolaires, cinéma colonial, iconographie coloniale (cartes postales et affiches), architecture néo-coloniale, musique, peinture (Delacroix, Matisse), etc." Based in Montpellier, France.

Societies After Slavery: A Select Annotated Bibliography of Printed Sources on Cuba, Brazil, British Colonial Africa, South Africa, and the British West Indies
Edited by Rebecca J. Scott, Thomas C. Holt, Frederick Cooper, and Aims McGuinness. Originally published as a print book - Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, c2002. Full text. Covers British Colonial Africa and South Africa. Each section has an essay and annotated entries. Compilers include Fred Cooper, Pamela Scully, etc. "the definitive resource for scholars and students engaged in research on postemancipation societies in the Americas and Africa." Part of the Univ. of Pittsburg Digital Library.

Stanford Humanities Lab - Court Records
French Soudan (Mali) Colonial Law Database Project - part of History Professor Richard Robert's research on the "meanings of power, authority, and challenges to authority" in colonial French Soudan [Mali]. [KF]

The Sukuma Museum (Mwanza, Tanzania)
Describes the revival of Sukuma traditional arts and culture taking place among traditional doctors, chiefs, artists, and dancers. Covers history, politics, and religion in Usukuma, the colonial influence on Sukuma chiefs, a history and tour of the Sukuma Museum. Has many photographs including historical photos. By Mark and Aimee Bessire. M. Bessire was a Fulbright Fellow and Consusltant to the Museum.

Tayler, Jeffrey, "Vessel of Last Resort"
Article published in the Atlantic Monthly, Sept. 1996 of Tayler's 1,100 mile trip on the Congo River from Kinshasa to Kisangani. Includes excerpts from the writings of the nineteenth-century explorer, Henry Morton Stanley, and from Joseph Conrad's, "Heart of  Darkness."

Tierno Bokar
Site for the play directed by Peter Brook adapted from Amadou Hampate Ba's book, Vie et enseignement de Tierno Bokar: le sage de Bandiagara. The U.S. premiere was at Columbia University. "Tierno Bokar (1875-1939) was a Sufi sage,... and a spiritual leader in his village in Mali. His clan, exponents of repeating a Sufi prayer 12 times, was embroiled in a debate with a rival clan that advocated repeating it 11 times, a debate that devolved into a conflict over power and leadership in the Tijani Sufi Order. Video clips and transcripts of interviews. Site at Columlbia University, New York city. [KF]

Troup, Robert Scott and Charles Francis Massy Swynnerton - Colonial forest administration
[London, New York, etc.] Oxford University Press, 1940. 476 pages. Online edition: 524 page images. Full text of the book. Can search within the book. Includes illustrations. Appendices include I. Forests & Water-Supply, II. How forestry may assist towards the control of the tsetse flies, by C.F.M. Swynnerton, " III. Legislative & Administrative Action taken by Different Countries, IV. Colonial Mining Laws and Timber Rights, V. Colonial Laws Dealing with Forestry. From the Core Historical Literature of Agriculture at Cornell University, a project to preserve brittle books. "Working with scholars in the field,...staff identified the core historical literature of agriculture-those books and journals that represent the most important publications in the agricultural sciences between 1850 and 1950." [KF]
Troup book:;idno=2910980

Twain, Mark - King Leopold's Soliloquy
Full text/photographs of Twain's work expressing his opposition to imperialism. On Jim Zwick's web site, "Mark Twain's Anti-imperialist Writings: a Guide to Online Resources."

UNESCO. Africa Revisited
In  English and French. About the "richness, the diversity, and the fragility" of Africa's cultural heritage. Includes German colonial architecture in Togo and Cameroun, Swahili culture (Lamu, Gede), missionary settlements in Southern Africa, West African forts (Elmina, Goree, James Fort), Ethiopian Christianity, etc.. Lists World Heritage sites in Africa. Part of the UNESCO World Heritage Centre. [KF]

UNESCO. Memory of Africa
UNESCO's  presents its la M?moire virtuelle du Monde / Virtual Memory of the World program for the preservation of archival and library holdings world-wide.
Features Cartes Postales d'Afrique - Historical postcards from Cote d'Ivoire and Benin.

United Kingdom. National Archives. Learning Curve
The Archives' education section for schools includes:
"How did the Abolition acts of 1807 and 1833 affect slavery?"
British Empire. with a sections on "The Rise of the British Empire," "Living in the British Empire," "End of the British Empire (Ghana)" including case studies on Africa (documents, worksheets, quizes, photos).
"How did the British Government try to keep the support of the people of West Africa during the Second World War?" Shows 1940s propaganda leaflets, with suggested tasks for students. [KF]

United States. Army. Center of Military History
Has short bibliographies on the Herero Uprising (Namibia 1904-1908 (Word doc) on British Colonial Africa and World War II (Word doc), and on Congo (Kinshasa) 1960-1965 (Word doc).

United States Army Service Forces, Special Service Division, A Pocket guide to West Africa
Prepared by Special Service Division, Army Service Forces, United States Army. Full text. 27 pages, in Adobe PDF. (Washington, D.C. : War and Navy Departments : U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943.)
Topics include: The Value of Good Will, French West Africa, British West Africa, Portuguese Guinea, Liberia, How Africans Live, How to Make Friends, Things to Do and Not to Do. From Southern Methodist University. World War II: 1939-1945. Historic Government Publications from World War II. [KF]

United States Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division 19th Century maps of Liberia
"...includes twenty examples from the American Colonization Society (ACS), organized in 1817 to resettle free black Americans in West Africa. These maps show early settlements in Liberia, indigenous political subdivisions, and some of the building lots that were assigned to settlers. This on-line presentation also includes other nineteenth-century maps of Liberia: a map prepared for a book first published in the 1820's by ACS agent Jehudi Ashmun, a map showing the areas in Liberia that were ceded to the society by indigenous chiefs, and a detailed map dated 1869 by a man thought to be the black American explorer Benjamin Anderson."  Has a History of Liberia Timeline.

Universite Cheikh Anta Diop. D?partement d'Histoire
In French. Publishes the journals, Revue S?n?galaise d'Histoire et Les Cahiers Histoire et Civilisations. Mémoires ou thèses can be ordered; lists of memoires and theses are online. Has memorials to scholars, lists of former students. Based at Dakar, Senegal. or
Full text of documents:

Universit? Laval. Groupe d'?tude et de recherche sur les soci?t?s africaines
In French.  "...un groupe de professeurs de la Facult? des sciences sociales a cr?? en 1997 le Groupe d'?tude et de recherche sur les soci?t?s africaines (GERSA)."   Hosts an exhibit of historical Mali postcards, part of a cd-rom on West African postcards.

Universite Paris 7 - Laboratoire Societes en Developpement dans l'Espace et dans le Temps (SEDET)
Multi-disciplinary research unit on comparative studies of the Third World. Information on members, research projects, list of theses (some with abstracts), publications, conferences. Site maintained by P. Boilley and I. Mande. [KF]
Paris 7:
L'Afrique à Paris 7 site covers activities at Université Paris 7:

University of Botswana, History Department
Has Colonial Administration Pages with extracts from full text documents, Boer War pages, the history of "El Negro of Banyoles, " and a History of Botswana by Neil Parsons.

University of California, Santa Cruz. McHenry Library - A Luta Continua: African Liberation Movement Posters from the Collection of David H. Anthony
Posters and background on the African anti-colonial struggle. Posters mainly from the personal collection of Professor Anthony. [KF]

University of London - Societies of southern Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries: collected seminar papers
Full text reports online. Mainly historical, includes some literary studies. Covers South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe.

University of Western Australia, European Languages & Studies - L'AFRIQUE ECRITE AU FEMININ à l'époque coloniale
In French. Web site on women writers, mainly Francophone, during the colonial era - Missionnaires, institutrices, coopérantes, expatriées, chargées de missions, écrivaines, voyageuses, aventurières ... Summaries, in French, of books by the women writers. Based in Perth, Australia.

Urhobo Waado, Urhobo Historical Society - History
The Society formed in 1999 has press releases from the Urhobo National Forum (New York) regarding the Western Niger Delta Crisis: 1997-1999 and clashes between the Itsekiri and Ijaws, proverbs in pidgin (youth affairs), biographies, environment issues, names and naming practices, short stories, British treaties, a series of lectures honoring Mukoro Mowoe by Professor Peter P. Ekeh, Professor Obaro Ikime, and others. Has links to other Urhobo organizations and to sites about writer, Ben Okri. [KF]

Virtual Institute of Mambila Studies
The Institute "seeks to collate and connect ...researchers with an interest in the Mambila people of the Nigeria-Cameroon borderland and their neighbours..." "...research is primarily of an anthropological and linguistic nature..." The site has reports on David Zeitlyn's research on kinship and language and his annotated version of C. K. Meek's early ethnological work in the region, and Bruce Connell's comparative study of Mambila dialects. There is a bibliography of anthropological, linguistic, and related research on Mambila. The site has a short story by Jonathan W. Mangbon, (from Mambila L.G.A.) "Drink and the Innocent Policeman" and the History and Customs of Ntem by P. M. Kaberry and E. M. Chilver. Documents from African and U.K. archives include 1923 reports by Major Glasson on the Mambila with a vocabulary list, a critique of C. K. Meek's Tribal Studies by D. A. Percival, and Mambila stories (How people came to die, The cunning rabbit, The beautiful girl, Why the Mambila don't eat Grey Monkey). The site was established by Zeitlyn and Connell.

White, Luise - "Speaking with Vampires: Rumor and History in Colonial Africa"
Full text of the book (Berkeley, Calif. : University of California Press, c2000. 352 p.) published in the series: Studies on the History of Society and Culture, 37.;query=;brand=ucpress
Topics include:

  • "Bandages on your mouth": the experience of colonial medicine in East and Central Africa
  • "Why is petrol red?": the experience of skilled and semi-skilled labor in East and Central Africa
  • "A special danger": gender, property, and blood in Nairobi, 1919-1939
  • "Roast mutton captivity": labor, trade, and Catholic missions in colonial Northern Rhodesia
  • Blood, bugs, and archives: debates over sleeping-sickness control in colonial Northern Rhodesia, 1931-1939
  • Citizenship and censorship: politics, newspapers, and "a stupefier of several women" in Kampala in the 1950s
  • Class struggle and cannibalism: storytelling and history writing on the copperbelts of colonial Northern Rhodesia and the Belgian Congo

Wise's World Paper Money Collection
A great collection of scanned images of African and other paper money. Dates vary for each country, some from 1919 to the 1990s. See French West African currency from the 1930s and 40s or Biafra's currency. Many have portraits of African leaders. Ronald Wise, Jr. works at Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis.

Yattara, Almamy Maliki and Bernard Salvaing - Almamy : une jeunesse sur les rives du fleuve Niger
Preface by Adame Ba Konari. (Imprint: Brinon-sur-Sauldre : Grandvaux, 2000. 443 p.) "Almamy Yattara, born in Mali in about 1922, tells the story of his childhood and youth in Guimballa, a region to the south-west of Timbuctoo. At the same time as he was pursuing his higher education in Islamic studies with great masters, he learned about agriculture, stock breeding, commerce, fishing, hunting, living in a world where the supernatural and the everyday are inextricably linked." "He presents an unusual light on the encounter between Islam and colonisation in a region of Mali still hardly affected by modern and colonial influences. Has extracts from the book, photos, reviews of the book.


Print Sources

Author: Hess, Robert L. and Dalvan M. Coger
Title: A bibliography of primary source for nineteenth-century tropical Africa as recorded by explorers, missionaries, traders, travelers, administrators, military men, adventurers, and others.
Imprint: Stanford, Calif. : Hoover Institution Press, 1973, c1972.
Physical Description: xxv, 800 p. 29 cm.
Series: (Hoover bibliographical series ; 47).
Note: First published under title: Semper ex Africa... ISBN: 081792471X

Organization: Royal Commonwealth Society, Library
Title: Subject catalogue of the Library of the Royal Empire Society / by Evans Lewin; with a new introduction by Donald H. Simpson.
Edition: [1st ed. reprinted]
Imprint: London : Dawsons for the Royal Commonwealth Society,1967.
Volume.1. The British Empire generally and Africa.