1º Congresso Internacional de Arqueologia da África. 1ST INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN AFRICA. 20 - 21 setembro 2021

African Archaeology
News, links to web resources by African region, ancient maps, bibliographies, journals, Africanist archaeologists' web sites, discussion lists, directories, university programs, organizations. "developed from the "Anthropology Resources on the Internet" (ARI) directory.... started by Allen Lutins in 1995" Part of the World Wide Web Virtual Library. Maintained by Bernard Clist since 1999. [KF]

African Timelines
Chronology with descriptions for Ancient Africa, African Empires, African Slave Trade & European Imperialism, Anti-Colonialism, Post-Independence Africa, plus Sources for Further Study. Site by Cora Agatucci, Associate Professor of English, Central Oregon Community College, Bend, Oregon.

African World Heritage Fund
An international NGO, founded in 2006, "that supports the implementation of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (1972) on the African continent." "AWHF's mission is to build the required capacity for increasing the number of African sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List." Full text reports, articles, annual reports. Based in South Africa. [KF]

Archaeology Africa
Project of the Research Unit for the Archaeology of Cape Town (RESUNACT), Centre for African Studies, University of Cape Town. Prof. Martin Hall heads the project. Involves primary and secondary schools in excavating sites. Includes a history of Genadendal, information on a walking tour of slave sites in Cape Town, extensive links to related web sites.

ArchNet - African Archaeology
A collection of archeological web sites at the Univ. of Connecticut:

  • Base d'Anthropologie physique du Niger-Institut de Recherche en Sciences Humaines de l'Universite de Niamey. Excavations of pre-islamic burial sites, includes photos, some large maps which take a long time to load.
  • University of Calgary (Canada) Dept. of Archaeology. Descriptions of the Dept.'s research projects in West Africa.
  • Ceramic Traditions of Mali - Mission Archeologique et Ethnoarcheologique Suisse en Afrique de l'Ouest. Photos and descriptions of pottery work by women. Lots of graphics.

ARCHway Database.
"The ARCHway "Citation Index" indexes the tables of contents from Britain's 14 most popular archaeological journals." "References range from as far back as 1770, and as recently as 2001." The ARCHway Journal Locator provides the archaeology journal holdings of over 20 UK university, museum and private libraries. Covers over 2000 journals. "provides the title of the journal, contact details for each of the libraries that hold it, the volume numbers of each journal they hold, and the years covered by these collections." Also provides publisher addresses, ISSN. A project led by the University of York Library. [KF]

Argos is a peer-reviewed, limited area search engine covering the ancient and medieval worlds. "Quality is controlled by a system of hyperlinked internet indices which are managed by qualified professionals who serve as the Associate Editors of the project."  Searches retrieve many archeological web sites about the Sudan, Egypt, etc. Based at the Univ. of Evansville.

Cahiers de terrain de l'archéologue africaniste Raymond Mauny (1912-1994)
In French. "Ce site présente les cahiers de terrain de l'archéologue africaniste Raymond Mauny (1912-1994) déposés à la Bibliothèque de recherches africaines."

Centro Studi Archeologia Africana
Based in Milan. Work in Togo, Mali, Niger and Eritrea, etc. Lists their research projects, publications, has photos, illustrations.

Christiansborg Archaeological Heritage Project, CAHP
In English, Ga, and Twi. 17th century Christiansborg Castle, today Osu Castle, was a site involved in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site and is now the Office of the President of Ghana. Archeological reports, videos, photos, bibliography. Funders/supporters include Ghana’s present and former Presidents, Stanford University, Hampshire College, the British High Commission in Accra, etc. Based in Osu, Accra, Ghana.

Congress of the Pan African Association for Archaeology and Related Studies, 12th, Gaborone July 3-10, 2005
Hosted by the University of Botswana History Department (Archaeology Unit) and the National Museum and Art Galley.

David, Nicholas, et. al. "Ethnoarchaeology Bibliography"
"Keyword Bibliography of Ethnoarchaeology and Related Topics" arranged alphabetically by author. Professor David teaches in the Dept. of Archaeology, Univ. of Calgary (Canada). His research interests include the archaeology of Africa and Europe.

In French. Site of the Association pour la promotion du patrimoine culturel de Djenné. Includes a history of Djenné, a map and photographs of the tombs of saints, full text issues of their Bulletin, information on archeology work, traditional crafts. Based in Djenné, Mali. [KF]

France. Ministere des affaires etrangeres. Les carnet d'archeologie
Includes Les st?les du Sidamo en Ethiopie, Le site arch?ologique de Gism el-Arba in the Sudan.

Grzymski, Krzysztof
Brief descriptions of archaeologist Grzymski's field projects in Egypt and in Sudanese Nubia - Hambukol/Letti Basin (medieval Nubian town) and Meroe (the capital of Kush). On the site of the Royal Ontario Museum. Near Eastern and Asian Civilizations Department (NEAC). [KF]

Histoire de l'Afrique de l'Ouest
In French. Site created by historians from West African universities. Contents include un annuaire des historiens [with current research, publications, activities), news (conferences, publications, etc.), chronologies for West Africa and each of the countries covered: Burkina Faso, Togo, Niger, Mali, Sénégal. Has historical maps from the book, Afrique Noire. Histoire et civilisations, edited by Elikia M'BOKOLO (Paris, Hatier, 2004 - right click and open separately for a larger map) and a bibliography on West African history. Has a databases of citations to history theses (Mémoires, maîtrises, DEA et thèses) from West African universities completed from 1970 à 2004; a study on historical methodology - Les sources de l'archéologie au Burkina Faso by Jean-Baptiste KIETHEGA (includes a map of Burkina Faso archaeological sites); and links to related sites. The web site has support from the Agence universitaire de la Francophonie. [KF] http://www.histoire-afrique.or

Inagina, the Last House of Iron
About a documentary film on metallurgy work by the Dogon blacksmiths of Mali.   "In Mali, on the cliffs inhabited by the Dogon, an ethnoarchaeologist and a cameraman participated in an extremely rare event : the reduction of iron ore. The experience was filmed and is a unique testimony of a thousand-year-old technology which has now disappeared." Directed by Eric Huysecom, Department of Anthropology and Ecology, University of Geneva and Bernard Agustoni, of T?l?vision Suisse Romande. In English and French.

Internet African History Sourcebook - Paul Halsall
Has full-text sources for African history arranged by topics. Includes the Black Athena Debate, human origins, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, Islam in Africa, West African kingdoms, Great Zimbabwe, etc.. Maintained by Paul Halsall, Fordham University.

Journal of African Archaeology (Frankfurt)
In English and French. Published by Africa Magna Verlag, Frankfurt. Editorial office at J.-W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Began publication 2003; published twice a year.

Journal of Eastern African Studies
Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, based in Nairobi, Kenya. Published by Routledge. Articles in the humanities and social sciences, especially archaeology, history, linguistics and anthropology of Eastern Africa. Encourages interdisciplinary analysis.

Mali Interactive
Accounts of archaeological excavations and information on the people and culture of Jenn?. The project leaders include Profs. Rod and Susan McIntosh, archaeologists, from Rice University's Anthropology Dept. U.S. A goal is to save archaeological information from destruction by erosion. Jenn? is the earliest known urban settlement south of the Sahara and a UNESCO World Heritage site. Photos, news, teaching resources, information on Mali and archaeology. Links to a historical geography unit for grade 6 on Timbuktu and the Niger River by Ginny White.

Marothodi Institute for Archaeology in Africa
Non-profit engaged in research and conservation of Africa's heritage. Provides professional training in archaeological theory, methods and practice. Publishes Ukumba, a quarterly magazine and a newsletter, Simulizi. Grants and scholarships for African students. Offices in the U.K., California, and Cape Town, South Africa. [KF]

McGregor Museum (Kimberley, South Africa)
"...has departments actively engaged in research in history, oral history, archaeology and rock art, with a principal focus on the Northern Cape Province, South Africa." Is strong in "Military History, focussing on the Anglo-Boer War." Has an EnviroZone covering the natural environment of the Northern Cape and an exhibition on the human history of the Northern Cape from three million years ago, and departments of botany and zoology. Their library holds "unpublished diaries of ordinary citizens reflecting life during the Siege of Kimberley (October 1899-February 1900)." Its walking tour lists historical events in Kimberley. Has links to other museums in Kimberley.

MacGregor Museum. Department of Archaeology and Rock Studies
Descriptions of important sites, sites of interest to tourists, studies on Archaeometry, pottery from Mapungubwe, glossary of archaeological terms, bibliography, links to related sites. Based in Kimberley, South Africa. [KF]

Miller, D.E. & Maggs, T. 1994. Pre-colonial metalworking in Africa, especially southern Africa: a bibliography:1-67. Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town (African Studies Library).
"...concentrates on southern Africa, that is, Angola, Namibia, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland and South Africa. It is incomplete and may have some inappropriate entries." Journal articles, books. [KF]

Mus?e royal de l'Afrique centrale/Royal Museum for Central Africa
Site of the well-known museum in Tervuren, Belgium.  Information on programs, exhibitions, publications, their Metafro InfoSys, "an on-line Web-based information system about the Belgian data resources related to Central Africa, including Angola, Burundi and Rwanda."

Old Bulawayo Project - Univ. of Birmingham, Field Archaeology Unit
An archaeological research project at Old Bulawayo, the late 19th century capital of the Nbebele king, Lobengula. The project is run by the Univ. of Birmingham Field Archaeology Unit and Zimbabwe National Museums and Monuments.

Oldest Known Fossils of Modern Humans Found in Ethiopia
Articles on the June 2003 announcement. From the BBC. “Three fossilised skulls unearthed in Ethiopia are said by scientists to be among the most important discoveries ever made in the search for the origin of humans. The crania of two adults and a child, all dated to be around 160,000 years old, were pulled out of sediments near a village called Herto in the Afar region in the east of the country. They are described as the oldest known fossils of modern humans, or Homo sapiens.”
From Nature magazine
From PBS
From CNN
From the Guardian (London)
Dr. Timothy White's web site on the Institute for Science, Engineering and Public Policy website in Oregon.

The Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
Nubia Salvage Project. The Institute participated in the 1960s UNESCO effort to rescue archaeological sites from the rising waters of the Aswan High Dam. Artifacts recovered from that effort were presented in two exhibitions:

Nubia Slavage Project:
Photographic Archives. Seven historical photographs from the Sudan (Nubia). A sample of photographs taken by Institute expeditions in the early 20th century.
Sudan page:
Photographic Archives main page:

Parliamentary Millennium Project
Site works only in Microsoft's browser. Antiquarian Western maps (from South Africa's Parliament) and their view of Africa are contrasted with African history from an African perspective. Uses photographs of archaeological discoveries to illustrate Africa's history before Europeans arrived. Lukasa memory boards and "map" staffs are seen vis a vis Western maps. Different historical experiences influence "the way we make policy decisions and how we see our future society." Has audio files of speeches about the project by Frene Ginwala and Naledi Pandor. From South Africa's Parliament, Cape Town.

Parsons, Neil - History of Botswana
Authoritative historical essays, by Professor Parsons of the University of Botswana, History Department. Has a chapter on archaeology. [KF]

Pradines, Stephane - Ceramique en pays sereer et tumulus senegambiens / The pottery of the Sereer and the tumuli of Senegambia
Paper, in French, from the e-journal, Internet Archaeology, No. 3, Autumn 1997. There is an abstract in English.

[Raymaekers] Fondation Paul Raymaekers / Paul Raymaekers Foundation
Established by the scholar, Paul Raymaekers. Grants to Ph.D. students, aged below 30. Private library (c. 5,000 items) open to Belgian and European Ph.D. students by appointment. Book list if online. Collection of c. 10,000 photographs and negatives. Collections of African metalwork, masks, statuettes, ceramics. Areas of interest: Archaeology, Prehistory and protohistory, Social sciences of religions, rural Development in Congo. Based in Rhode St. Genèse, Belgium. [KF]

Schmidt, Nancy - "Africana Resources for Undergraduates: A Bibliographic Essay"
An annotated guide by Dr. Schmidt (former Africana Librarian, Indiana University) to print and electronic database resources. Includes Archaeology. Pub. in Phyllis M. Martin and Patrick O'Meara (eds.), Africa. Third edition. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995, pp. 413-434.)  "The author would like to point out that this essay, published in 1995 and written a year before, does not reflect some more recent publications and web resources."

SFDAS, Section Francaise de la direction des antiquites du Soudan [French Archaeological Unit in the Sudan]
In French. The Director is Claude Rilly. Based in Khartoum.

Society of Africanist Archaeologists
An international "organization of archaeologists, researchers from associated disciplines and others who share an interest in African archaeology and African societies." Full text articles from their bulletin, Nyame Akuma, enhanced access to back issues of the bulletin, and a discussion forum, links to archaeology web sites. [KF]

Society of Africanist Archaeologists
Old site. Has the table of contents of their journal, Nyame Akuma, from No. 1, 1972, information on their conferences, websites of members, etc.

South Africa Meteorite Crater, the Vredefort Dome - UNESCO World Heritage Site
The oldest and largest meteorite crater found on earth, the Vredefort Dome, in South Africa was added in 2005 to a list of protected World Heritage sites by the United Nations. 20 page Evaluation in PDF. See also BBC July 15, 2005 report. [KF]

Southern African Association of Archaeologists Conference, Johannesburg, April 2000
Has full text papers:

  • Timeless Time - Africa and the World by Martin Hall
  • Archaeology in the community: The legal aspects by Janette Deacon
  • Bones of Contention: The Kouga Saga by Johan Binneman
  • Thoughts on Archaeology and the African Renaissance by Aron Mazel
  • Paper by A. B. Esterhuysen

Sudan Archaeological Research Society
"Founded in 1991...provides a focus for anyone interested in the archaeology of the Sudan." The Society's Archive "contains the original records from the Society's survey and excavation projects, currently those at Gabati, in the Northern Dongola Reach, at Kawa, at Jebel Umm Rowag and between Amri and Kirbekan above the Fourth Cataract. The archives for Soba East and the Wadi Halfa to Kerma Railway are also included." Links to related sites. [KF]

Sungbo's Eredo, Africa's Largest Single Monument
Photographs. On the site "Recording West Africa's Visible Archaeology African Legacy" of Dr. Patrick Darling, School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, UK.
New York Times article - "A Wall, a Moat, Behold! A Lost Yoruba Kingdom: Eredo Journal" by Norimitsu Onishi. Subscription only access through the New York Times or Academic Universe. About a 10th century 100 mile long wall and moat, Sungbo's Eredo, one of the largest monuments in sub-Saharan Africa. It was erected around a Yoruba kingdom. Article in the New York Times, September 20, 1999, page A4

Thulamela - Excavating in South Africa
Pages by Marius Loots describe the excavations at Thulamela located in Kruger National Park. Artifacts from Thulamela date from c.1240 AD to 1630 AD. Thulamela is linked with Great Zimbabwe. Photos include gold jewelry and skeletons excavated by Sidney Miller and, 3 years later, by the Univ. of Pretoria, Dept. of Anatomy. There is one page on Mapungubwe, another gold site in South Africa.

Torres, Leida I - "The Black Presence in Antiquity: a Selected Bibliography" by Leida I. Torres and Andrea Only
Bibliography of books, chapters in books, journal articles from Howard University's, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center. [KF]

UNESCO World Heritage Sites
"The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage... agreement, signed to date by more than 150 States Parties, was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in 1972. Its primary mission is to define and conserve the world's heritage, by drawing up a list of sites whose outstanding values should be preserved for all humanity and to ensure their protection through a closer co-operation among nations."
Africa sites are in Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Senegal, Seychelles, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia,  Zimbabwe:
World Heritage page:

University of  Botswana. History Department. Subject Index and Checklist of History and Archaeology Dissertations and Research Essays Submitted at the University of Botswana, 1976-1998
Lists four M.A. dissertations and 222 B.A. research essays.

University of Calgary (Canada) Dept. of Archaeology
The department has the following projects:

  • Maya-Wandala Project - Directed by Dr. Scott Maceachern, research in Cameroon and Borno State, Nigeria "to elucidate the historical relationships between populations found in this area today. [1992-93]...and earlier populations
  • The Ghana Ethnoarchaeological Project - Directed by Nick Gabrilopoulos, concerns fieldwork among the Tallensi and their use of space and the built environment
  • The Asante Archaeology Project - In Ghana directed by Prof. Peter Shinnie

Vansina, Jan - "Historians, Are Archeologists Your Siblings?"
"All historians, whatever their disciplinary affiliation, can therefore learn a great deal from the practice of archeologists about the perils and the successes of reconstructing history from a varied lot of sources. Hence the contribution of archeology to the history of Africa is not limited to the discovery of new and complementary sources to be used by others, but goes to the very heart of the historical enterprise."  Article from History in Africa, 22 [1995], 369-408, republished on the H-AFRICA website.