History primary sources

See also: Historical photographs

Academie Royale des sciences d'outre-mer
Has a list of their many publications. Many full text publications free online. For exampleBulletin des séances. https://www.kaowarsom.be/catalog/index.php

Adam Matthew Publications
Microfilm publisher. Sells microfilm of 19th and 20th century journals and archival collections for African studies and other areas. https://www.amdigital.co.uk/
Example of microfilm sold - U.K. Foreign Office. American Department. Files: United States (Public Record Office Class FO 371:Part 1: The John F Kennedy Years, 1960-1963), relations of the United States with Nigeria,  Rhodesia, Peace Corps, etc. Part 2: The Lyndon B Johnson Years, 1964-1968 (PRO Class FO 371/174260-174346, 179557-179622 & 184995-185056 and PRO Class FCO 7/738-884) - Seychelles, Rhodesia, Peace Corps.
Africa Through Western Eyes. Part 1-2: Original Manuscripts from the Royal Commonwealth Society Library at Cambridge University Library.
Church Missionary Society Archive -  See Section IV: Africa Missions.

Aequatoria Archives Research Project
Based at the Research Center of the International Pragmatics Association, University of Antwerp, and works with the Centre Aequatoria, Mbandaka, Congo (DRC). "Its goal is to make extensively annotated editions as well as systematic interpretive analyses of documents from the archives of the Centre Aequatoria - in particular those documents that are relevant to the historiographic study of linguistics and ethnology in colonial times." The Archives have, on microfiche, the proceedings of the Conf?rence Nationale Souveraine. Has an online Catalogue. The Archives holdings, on microfiche, are available in several locations worldwide (CAMP, Univ. of Wisconsin, etc.). The microfiche can also be purchased from the Archives in Antwerp. Has the full text, in French, of: Temoignages africains de l'arrive des premiers Blancs aux bords des rivires de l'Equateur(RD Congo) -- African testimonies of the arrivals of the first Whites on the river banks in the Congolese Equateur region (? 253pp) http://www.aequatoria.be/archives_project/

Africa South of the Sahara - History - Slavery
Includes links to autobiographies of former slaves, their experiences in Africa and in the Diaspora. Site based at Stanford University Libraries. https://library.stanford.edu/africa-south-sahara/browse-topic/history/slavery

Africa South of the Sahara - Photographs (Historical)
Web resources for Africa-related historical photographs. Maintained by the Stanford University Libraries.

African National Congress Archives
A wealth of documents on South Africa's history and the anti-apartheid movement worldwide. http://m3.ancarchives.africamediaonline.com/page/aboutus

American Museum of Natural History. Congo Expedition, May 1909-November 1915
"In 1909,...Herbert Lang and James Chapin set sail for the Belgian Congo....By the time they sailed home five and one-half years later, they had collected tons of precious zoological and anthropological specimens..." [KF] http://diglib1.amnh.org/

  • An introductory, multimedia slide show.
  • Diaries of James Chapin ("At age 19, in 1909, James Chapin left New York for northeastern Congo where he served as Herbert Lang's assistant for the next five years. Chapin was interested in many aspects of Africa's natural history. Birds, however, were his passion, a fact borne out by these diaries.")
  • Biographies of James Paul Chapin and Herbert Lang, photographs (villages, primates), the watercolors of James Chapin including Congo mural paintings, birds, fish, reptiles, mammels, excerpts from "African Reflections: Art from Northeastern Zaire," by Enid Schildkrout and Curtis A. Keim (AMNH and University of Washington Press, 1990) including their photographs of Congo musical instruments excerpts from "King Leopold's Ghost" by Adam Hochschild (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1998) "160 publications including 120 American Museum of Natural History publications based on the material collected by the 1909-1915 Congo Expedition, 12 British Museum publications by Barry Bolton on Congo ants, 11 publications on African ants by the South African Museum and affiliated organizations, and 17 Congo-related World Conservation Union (IUCN) publications."
  • A central African map with layers. Select which features will appear on the map: lakes, cities, roads, railroads, forest, mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, etc., a map of Chapin and Lang's travels historic maps reflecting the "development of European knowledge of African geography from 1562 through 1940." Reproduced with permission of the New York Public Library and the British Library. audio (requires sound card, headset or speakers) and video clips of the Belgian Congo Records made by the "adventurer and filmmaker Armand Denis during his 1934-35 cross-Africa expedition. They were among the first recordings made of the sounds of the central Congo. The Babiara people, whose songs may be heard..... are one of the four main tribal groups who occupy the Ituri Forest." The video clip shows a traditional Mangbetu dance.
  • A database on specimens collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition a bibliographic essay on sources by Paula Willey, specially prepared bibliographies on Congo Conservation (314 citations), Description & Travel (1218 citations), Maps & Atlases (220 citations). Newspaper Headlines, 1880-1916 about the Congo from the New York Times and the New York Herald [KF]

Website from the Internet Archive, founded by Brewster Kahle, which archives web pages from state archives and university libraries. Find archived pages from the Africa Union, Doctors Without Borders, Slate (the e-magazine for example), etc. Institutions build, manage and their own web archive. "Each institutional subscription allows you to harvest up to 300 Web sites, with a limit of three active collections at any given time." http://www.archiveit.org

Archives Hub
Excellent resource for finding United Kingdom archives of organizations, people, topics. Holdings from over 330 institutions. https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/

Has a Currency Museum with photographs of banknotes from Africa. For South Africa has currency as old as 1896, from 1909 for Angola, British West Africa from 1918, from the Belgian Congo 1914, from French West Africa 1929, from Germa East Africa 1905, from the BCEAO "Banknotes of West African States" 1959, Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1956 and more. Site from Asheville, North Carolina. [KF] http://www.banknotes.com/ See also Wise's World Paper Money Collection.

Bois Marchand Cemetery Archive (1867-1930)
In English. Burial registers dating from August 1867 to October 1921.  Includes the name, age, sex, place of birth, date and place of death, cause of death, marital status, names of the declarants of death, date of burial, type of burial (pauper, private), number of row, grave and square.  "This was the largest cemetery in the Indian Ocean at the time."  Digital copies of the material can also be found at the National Archives of Mauritius, Stanford University Libraries, and the Aapravasi Ghat Trust Fund. Received from project holder Dr Krish Seetah, January 2020. Project description. https://eap.bl.uk/collection/EAP863-1

British History Online
From the Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust. Database of primary and secondary sources. Focus is on the period between 1300 and 1800. List of the British Secretaries of State 1794-1870. If you register (free), you can save a personal bookshelf of links to useful resources and use a split screen feature to compare two documents simultaneously. Based in London. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/
Full text of the House of Commons Journal. Examples:

  • Report from Committee on Sierra Leone, No. 661. From: 'House of Commons Journal Volume 85: 13 July 1830', Journal of the House of Commons: volume 85: 1830, pp. 640-45. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=16284&strquery=slavery%20africa.
  • Petitions for abolition of Slavery. From: 'House of Commons Journal Volume 85: 13 July 1830', Journal of the House of Commons: volume 85: 1830, pp. 640-45. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=16284&strquery=slavery%20africa.

British Libraray. Endangered Archives
Provides grants "to locate relevant endangered archival collections, to arrange their transfer to a suitable local archival home where possible, to create digital copies of the material and to deposit the copies with local institutions and the British Library."http://eap.bl.uk/

Bulatovich, Alexander - [Ethiopia Through Russian Eyes]
Translation from Russian by Richard Seltzer of two books by Alexander Bulatovich:

"...those books have lots of interesting and unique information about the Oromo/Galla people." http://www.samizdat.com/armies.html

CAMP. Catalog of Nigerian Pamphlets on Microfilm
Compiled by the African Collection, Yale University Library, New Haven, Connecticut for the Cooperative Africana Microform Project and the Center for Research Libraries. http://www-apps.crl.edu/areastudies/CAMP/collections/camppamp.htm
Full text, 60 pages, in Adobe pdf. Citations to 1,000 pamphlets on microfilm. Included are market literature titles from the Simon Ottenberg collection. Types of pamphlets - Nigeria, Biafra, Southern Nigeria government publications, market literature, political party pamphlets, church and religious pamphlets, magazines and other serials. Authors include Obafemi Awolowo, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Samuel A.Crowther, the Action Party, N.C.N.C. Dates range from the late 19th century to pre-World War II and the mid 1960s. Languages - English, Yoruba, Ibo, Hausa. There is an index by author and subject. The microfilmed pamphlets are available from CAMP, Cooperative African Materials Project, based at the Center for Research Libraries, Chicago. The inventory is part of CAMP's Guides to Collections. [KF]

Cold War International History Project (Washington, D.C.)
Established at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, supports the release of historical materials by governments, seeks to disseminate new perspectives on Cold War history.[KF] https://www.wilsoncenter.org/program/cold-war-international-history-project
Has full text Russian archival documents on Soviet policy toward Angola and Southern Africa in the 1970s and Russian and East German documents on the U.S.-Russian rivalry in the Horn of Africa. Select Virtual Library: Working Papers..Bulletin. Then select, Geographic Subject.
New Evidence on the Cold War in Southern Africa

  • Havana's Policy in Africa, 1959-76: New Evidence from Cuban Archives, by Piero Gleijeses
  • Fidel Castro's 1977 Southern Africa Tour: A Report to Honecker
  • Moscow and the Angolan Crisis, by Odd Arne Westad
  • Soviet Documents on Angola and Southern Africa, 1975-1979

Anatomy of a Third World Cold War Crisis: New East-bloc Evidence on the Horn of Africa, 1977-1978.

  • The Horn, the Cold War, and New Documents from the Former East-bloc: An Ethiopian View, by Ermias Abebe
  • Moscow, Mengistu, and the Horn, by Paul B. Henze
  • East Germany and the Horn Crisis: Documents on SED Afrikapolitik, by Christian F. Ostermann
  • Russian and East German Documents on the Horn of Africa, 1977-1978

Commonwealth War Graves Commission
The Commission maintains graves / memorials throughout the world for members of the Commonwealth forces who died in World Wars I and II. Has statistics on the number of Commonwealth war dead commemorated by country, for ex. 50,000 + in Kenya, 8,000 + in South Africa,  5,000 + in Tanzania, 4,000 + in Nigeria, 900+ in Eritrea, etc. Select "Global Commitment" then "breakdown by country." [KF] http://www.cwgc.org/

Curtin, Philip D. and Herbert S. Klein. Records of Slave Ship Movements Between Africa and the Americas, 1817-1843
Compiled by Philip D. Curtin, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (1967). Edited by Herbert Klein, Columbia University, New York (1973). From Parliamentary Papers XLIX (73) 593-633, Foreign Office, 1845. "...contains information on the ship's port of arrival, date of arrival, type of vessel, tonnage, master's name, number of guns, number of crew, national flag, number of slaves, port of departure, number of days of voyage, and mortality." The site is part of Slave Movement During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. [KF] http://dpls.dacc.wisc.edu/slavedata/slaintro1.html

Die Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (DKG) Bildarchiv
In English and German. The Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main has put on-line a large keyword searchable database of colonial era photographs, 1822-1936, from the archives of the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft [German Colonial Society], a major organization behind Germany's colonial expansion. Covers Namibia, Tanzania, Cameroon, Togo, etc.  One can click on the small photos to see a larger version. The database can be searched by Region, Subject Areas, Keyword, Person, Photographer, People. The collection, of thousands of photographs, is also being microfilmed for preservation. Description of the Image Collection of the German Colonial Society. [B.Lawrance and KF] http://www.ub.bildarchiv-dkg.uni-frankfurt.de/

Digital Innovation South Africa, DISA
Full text historical South African journals, books, theses, maps, legal documents online. Also articles, legal decrees, pamphlets, historical conference papers, political party constitutions, letters, historical interviews, poetry, music (including the national anthem), photographs, posters, programs, trial proceedings, etc. The Advanced Search covers the entire database. http://www.disa.ukzn.ac.za/

  • "South Africa's Struggle for Democracy: Anti-Apartheid Periodicals, 1960-1990" Full text titles available are: Abasebenzi, Afra Newsletter, African Communist, Africanist News and Views, Amandla-Matla, Apdusa Views, Arise! Vukani!, Black Review, Clarion Call, Congress Resister, Cosatu News, Crisis News, Critical Health, Dawn, Democracy in Action, East Cape Update, Fosatu Worker News, Frank Talk, Grassroots, Ikwezi, Inqaba ya Basebenzi, Isisebenzi, Isizwe, Izwi lase Township Journal of Black Theology, Mayibuye, NUM News, Phakamani, Pro Veritate, Rixaka, Sash, SASO Newsletter, SASPU Focus, SASPU Nationa,l Sechaba, Speak, Speak Newspaper, TRAC Newsletter, Umsebenzi, Work in Progress.
  • Black Sash, 1960-1990 - [Stanford Students Please Note. Stanford has Black Sash print issues for 1959-1965,1967-1992, 1995 Jan.]
  • Clarion Call (Inkatha), 1983-1990 - "published as the official journal of the KwaZulu Government and Inkatha" - "a liberation movement committed to non-violence, peaceful change and a negotiated future for South Africa". [Stanford Students Note. Stanford has print issues of Clarion Call for v.1:no.9 (1984:Apr.) - 1991:Nov.]
  • Pro Veritate (Christian Institute of Southern Africa) , 1962-1977 - "relating to the Christian standpoint in the face of the anti-apartheid regime."
  • Sechaba (ANC, London), 1967-1990

Documenting the American South
Has full text primary sources (books, monographs) including works by African-American missionaries in Africa, slaves' accounts of Africa. The Education section has Lessons Plans. From the University Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://docsouth.unc.edu/

Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. "The Souls of Black Folk; Essays and Sketches" (1903)
Project Gutenberg provides the full-text of the book. ftp://uiarchive.cso.uiuc.edu/pub/etext/gutenberg/etext96/soulb10.txt

Encyclopedie, ou Dictionnaire Raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers
In French. Pilot project to put the 17 + vols. of Diderot and d'Alembert's encyclopedia, published between 1751 and 1772, online. Only Vol. 1 is available; the text has not been proof-read/corrected. The definition of Afrique represents the knowledge of that time about Africa. Has a keyword search mechanism. A project of the Univ. of Chicago. [KF] http://tuna.uchicago.edu/homes/mark/ENC_DEMO/

Foreign Relations of the United States Ebooks
Information about the Foreign Relations of the US series. https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/ebooks

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961-1963, Volume 9: Foreign Economic Policy
Editors: Evans Gerakas and others. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Historia, U.S. Dept. of State, 1995. Full text. From the print volume. Covers aid to Africa, German-U.S. coordination regarding aid, relations with South Africa with regard to U.S. Strategic Materials and Commodities Policy during the administration of President John F. Kennedy. (Dept. of State Publication, 10229) [KF] https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1961-63v09

Foreign relations of the United States, 1964-1968. Volume 24, Africa
Editors, Nina Davis Howland, David S. Patterson.Washington, D.C. : Office of the Historian, U.S. Dept. of State, 1999. Full text primary documents (letters, telegrams, memoranda, etc.) regarding U.S. relations with Africa. (Dept. of State Publication 10627). [KF] https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1964-68v24

France, Bibliotheque nationale, Gallica
In French. "Gallica propose un accès à 70 000 ouvrages numérisés, à plus de 80 000 images et à plusieurs dizaines d'heures de ressources sonores." Huge online library of full text books, serials, and images. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ http://gallica.bnf.fr/

France. Bibliotheque nationale. Voyages en Afrique
In French. "900 volumes de textes, 30 titres de revues, 80 cartes venant des collections imprimees de la BnF, 20 heures d'enregistrements sonores des fonds du Musee de la parole et du geste et 6500 photographies issues des fonds de la Societe de geographie." Access documents by type (books, journals, maps, photographs), geographic area, era. Part of the French national library's Gallica site. http://gallica.bnf.fr/dossiers/html/dossiers/VoyagesEnAfrique/
Contents include:

  • Maps of peoples and kingdoms, colonial history, physical map, antique maps, nautical maps.
  • Full text books, journal articles, maps illustrating themes: L'Europe decouvre l'Afrique, L'Afrique des cultures, Histoire coloniale : la France en Afrique, L'Afrique vue depuis la France.
  • Journal articles (Bulletins de la Societe d'anthropologie de Paris; Bulletin de la Societe de geographie de Paris; le Tour du Monde, 1860-191; La Geographie; Bulletin de la Societe de geographie commerciale de Bordeaux; Revue maritime et coloniale, Annales des voyages, de la geographie et de l'histoire: Nouvelles annales des voyages, de la geographie et de l'histoire and many more.
  • A Bibliography and a Chronology and Music from the 1930s and earlier (see L'Afrique vue depuis la France).

France Diplomatie
In French and English. Web site for the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Has the Digital Diplomatic Library.  Has documents online such as "Affaires du Congo et de l'Afrique occidentale / Ministère des affaires étrangères" 1884 and "Compte définitif des recettes et des dépenses de l'exercice... / Colonie du Sénégal, Pays de Protectorat." https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/

French West Africa. Grand Conseil.
Bulletin. Procès-verbaux. v.1-2(1918-1919). Published 1919
Bulletin. Procès-verbaux. v.3-4(1920-1921). Published 1921
Bulletin. Procès-verbaux. v.5-6(1922-1923). Published 1923. Full text on the Hathi Trust site. https://www.hathitrust.org/

Garvey - Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers Project
This is the website for the project, directed by Robert A. Hill, at the James S. Coleman African Studies Center, UCLA. Has the text of the book jackets, the introductions and sample documents for the African series, 1913-1945, American series, and Caribbean series. Has photos and, for those with multimedia computers, sound files of two speeches by Garvey, the only known recordings of his voice.[KF] http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/mgpp/

George Mason University. Center for History and New Media - Women in World History
Primary sources about women and gender with guidelines to using primary sources. Sources include excerpts from the 17th c. Journal of Jan van Riebeeck, letters of the grand-daughter of Jan van Riebeeck, rock art of the San, drawings, narrative of the Cape (Southern Africa) 1705 to 1713, the situation of slaves in the Cape, letter of Mary Moffat, narrative by Mary Kingsley, autobiography of Buchi Emecheta, African novels, excerpt from Tsitsi Dangarembga's novel Nervous Conditions. http://chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/index.html
Has a case study by Beverly Mack on Nana Asma'u, Muslim Woman Scholar and one by Jeremy D. Popkin, The Calling of Katie Makanya (South Africa 1873-1956) and a classroom module on Cultural Contact in Southern Africa (17th century including slavery). Holds online forums for teachers; the forum beginning October 1, 2005 is Women in World History. Beginning November 2005 is a forum on Women in Africa.

Graham (Billy) Center Archives, Wheaton College, IL
Collections on African Christianity from mainly North American Protestant missionaries and some African churches and organizations. Most records are 20th century; 75% concern east or central Africa. Examples are the diaries of Bernard Litchman, a health officer in Zaire from 1917 to 1961, and Elwood Davis, a physician, in Kenya 1910 to 1949. Collections include those of the Africa Inland Mission and individual missionaries. Has the text of an interview with Paul P. Stough, a missionary with the Africa Inland Mission in Zaire (from 1928 to the early 1960s) during Belgian colonial rule which offers insights into relations with the Zairois, Belgian officials, the Catholic missions, etc. Its Images of Colonial Africa exhibit are photographs by missionary Laura Collins of Kenya, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), and Uganda in the early 1900s. [KF] http://www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/archhp1.html

Halsall, Paul - Internet African History Sourcebook
Has full-text sources for African history arranged by topics. Includes passages from The Life of Gustavus Vassa, by Oladuah Equiano, from David Livingstone, excerpt from Edward Morel's Black Man's Burden (1903), Nkrumah, the "Loi-Cadre" of June 23, 1956, Jomo Kenyatta's 1952 speech, the Arusha Declaration (1967), speech by Kenneth Kaunda on African Development and Foreign Aid (1966), statements/speeches on Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence 1965, etc. Maintained by Paul Halsall, Fordham University. [KF] http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/africa/africasbook.html

Heinz III, H. John - Archives
Heinz was a Congressman (1971-1976) and U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania (1977-1991). Portions of his archival papers are keyword searchable and available in full text from Carnegie Mellon University Library. Included is information on international trade, Rhodesia, South Africa, articles from newspapers, journals, his correspondence, etc. [KF] http://diva.library.cmu.edu/HELIOS/

INA,fr - Institut national de l'audiovisuel
Online archive of French radio and TV programs. Find videos of Leopold Sedar Senghor, Patrice Lumumba, video of French President Sarkozy's speech in Dakar, Senegal July 2007, etc. Videos may also be purchased. http://www.ina.fr/

Internet Library of Early Journals
A project by the Universities of Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester and Oxford to digitise substantial runs of 18th and 19th century journals. Includes Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, The Annual Register, and other titles. Blackwood's (March 1844) contains passages from The Highlands of Ethiopia, by Major W. Cornwallis Harris. [KF] http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/ilej/

Johnson (Lyndon B.) Library and Museum
Has full text oral history interviews in Adobe Acrobat .pdf format. Use the Acrobat Find (the binoculars) for keyword searches. Walt Rostow talks about a meeting with President Kennedy and President Keita of Mali reassuring Kennedy that Africa would not become communist. Has an interview with Dean Rusk on the US dropping paratroopers in Stanleyville, Congo and sending transport planes to show support for the Congo govt. against mercenaries, on U.S. policy in the Nigerian civil war. [KF] http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/

Kanuri Studies Association
Articles on Kanuri history /ethnography by scholars, photographs, current news, primary sources (oral histories), a bibliography, table of contents of the Borno Museum Society Newsletter, biographies of prominent figures. Primary health care project, "Borno Development Initiative." "founded in Maiduguri / Nigeria in 2003. The main aim of the association is to enhance and support the exchange of knowledge and information from and with Kanuri-speaking people and the academic community." http://www.kanuri.net/

Kennedy (John F.) Executive Orders, 1961-1963
Contains one Executive Order (1962) excluding South Africa from the definition of "economically less developed countries". Site by Maria E. Schieda. http://www.lib.umich.edu/libhome/Documents.center/jfkeo.html

John F. Kennedy Library & Museum - National Security Action Memorandum
Memoranda, (in the Presidential Papers of John Fitzgerald Kennedy at the Kennedy Library in Boston, Mass.), by either President Kennedy or McGeorge Bundy, Kennedy's National Security Advisor. Topics covered include South Africa policy, CIA support of U.S. actions towards Portuguese territories in Africa, U.S. arms in Angola, Soviet training of Ghanaian troops, Volta Dam in Ghana, U.S. Fighter Aircraft in the Congo, Intelligence on Operations in the Congo. [KF] http://www.jfklibrary.org/nsam.htm

Language and Popular Culture in Africa
"The main aim of LPCA is to document and further the study of expressions of popular language and culture in Africa." Maintained by Johannes Fabian and Vincent de Rooij of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Amsterdam. [KF] http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/lpca/
Has full text archives such as:

Lettre de Marque
In French. History of pirates in the Indian Ocean (with bibliography). The Aux Colonies section has posters, illustrations from the Paris and Marseille Colonial Expositions and cover photos of the colonial era newspaper, Le Petit Journal (Paris), a chronology of French colonial history. From a site based in Saint-Denis, Ile de La R?union. Maintained by "Appollo et Den." [KF] http://www.guetali.fr/home/appollod/sommaireperso.ht

Livingstone, David, "Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa"
Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa; Including a Sketch of Sixteen Years' Residence in the Interior of Africa, and a Journey from the Cape of Good Hope to Loanda on the West Coast; Thence Across the Continent, Down the River Zambesi, to the Eastern Ocean. (London, 1857). Full-text of the book with information on slavery. Part of Project Gutenberg. Includes an 1858 review of the book in Harper's Magazine. [KF] http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1039

Livingstone Online 
Digital museum & library on David Livingstone. Documents, letters, essays (Southern Africa and colonialism, Victorian medicine, European expeditions, etc), images, timeline. Resources contributed by 40 archives / repositories such as the National Library of Scotland, Royal Geographical Society, etc. Children's materials (ages 9-13) under Resources. http://livingstoneonline.org/   Has a blog. https://livingstoneonline.wordpress.com/

LLMC Digital (Law Library Microform Consortium)
Access to documents by subscription only (many U.S. libraries subscribe.)  Full text books, pamphlets, laws, law reports, official gazettes, selected British command papers, British Colonial Office annual reports, treaties, papers from the Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute, Cape Colony documents, etc. Has a partnership with the Center for Research Libraries (in Chicago) and has digitized African official gazettes. Based in Kaneohe, Hawaii.  http://www.llmcdigital.org

For a list of documents on the web site, select Online Services, then Digital Title List. You can download the entire list of documents.

[Mage, Eugene]. Eugene Mage au Soudan (1863-1866)
In French. Full text account which first appeared in the Revue Maritime et Coloniale, (Paris, 1867 - 1868). Has biographical profiles on Mage and Louis Quintin, a 1866 map (in 12 sections). Maintained by Regis Quesada. http://palissy.humana.univ-nantes.fr/CETE/TXT/MAGE/Mage.html

The Mambila of the Cameroon Nigerian border - David Zeitlyn
Full text letters and reports from the 1920s and 1930s. http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/dz/Archive/

Marguerat, Yves - Lome, un siecle d'images, 1884-1990
In French. The site Togo Contact from the Centre SYFED-REFER de Lome (a research network) has photographs and some text from Marguerat's book, Lome un siecle d'images, 1884-1990 (Lome : Presses de l'Universite du Benin, [1993-1996,  v. 1-2) which is an economic history of Lome. Shows hotels, business leaders, factories, rail/air transport, markets, craftsmen, etc. [KF] http://www.refer.org/togo_ct/tur/lome/accueil.htm

Medical Archives of Mengo Hospital, Uganda, housed at the Makerere University College of Health Sciences Albert Cook Library
300 volumes of hand-written medical notes, dating from 1897-1944. patients’ names have been removed. https://doi.org/10.15130/EAP617 or https://eap.bl.uk/project/EAP617

Michigan State University. Africana Library - Africana Archival Materials in Microform in the Michigan State University Library: A List
Compiled by Kalala Ngalamulume. Revised by Joseph J. Lauer. Arranged by country. On the web site of Michigan State University. Africana Library. http://www.lib.msu.edu/coll/main/africana/MF.arch.htm

Mintz, Stephen - Excerpts from Slave Narratives
Primary documents including:

  • A European slave trader, John Barbot, describes the African slave trade (1682)
  • A Muslim merchant, Ayubah Suleiman Diallo, recalls his capture and enslavement (1733)
  • Olaudah Equiano, an 11-year old Ibo from Nigeria remembers his kidnapping into slavery (1789)
  • Olaudah Equiano describes West African religious beliefs and practices (1789)
  • Charles Ball remembers a slave funeral, which incorporated traditional African customs (1837). Prof. Mintz teaches in the Department of History, University of Houston. [KF] http://vi.uh.edu/pages/mintz/primary.htm

National  Archives of Nigeria. Enugu and Calabar - Rescuing Eastern Nigerian history: preserving the holdings of Enugu and Calabar regional archives (EAP052)
In Engish. Project background: https://eap.bl.uk/project/EAP052 or https://doi.org/10.15130/EAP052

  • The Catalogue: https://bit.ly/2UNrjic
  • EAP052/1 Selection of Records from the Office of the Secretary, Southern Provinces, Nigeria [1930s-1940s]
  • EAP052/2 Selection of Records from the Calabar Division Office, Calabar Province, Nigeria [1949-1955]
  • Contents as of 2019 were 7 records from the Enugu and Calabar Archives from the late 1800s to 1960. Southern Province Records, Intelligence Reports on Clans, Calabar Division Office Records, Petition from woman regarding her estate, Petitons / appeals against tax assessments in Calabar. [KF]
  • The Archives https://eap.bl.uk/project/EAP052/search

National Archives of Nigeria, Kaduna - Northern Nigeria: Precolonial documents preservation scheme - major project (EAP535)
In English, Arabic, Hausa, Ajami. British colonial documents and Arabic and Hausa manuscripts. [KF]

  • Northern Province Secretariat, provincial files, Divisional & District Office records, court records, maps, photographs 1897-1920. Topics include slavery, Islam, labor, agriculture, culture, reform of Caliphate institutions.
  • Arabic & Hausa Manuscripts. Covers "the social, economic and political history of the Sokoto Caliphate (the largest 19th century Islamic empire in West Africa)" - local chronicles,  correspondence, legal documents, religious literature late 18th century to 1903.
  • The Archives. https://eap.bl.uk/project/EAP535/search
  • Background on the British Library Endangered Archives project: https://eap.bl.uk/project/EAP535 or DOI: https://doi.org/10.15130/EAP535
  • Collection EAP087/2:"Selection of Records from the Office of the Secretary of the Northern Provinces, Nigeria"  https://eap.bl.uk/collection/EAP087-2?page=2
  • Background on the National Archives, Kaduna. https://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/endangeredarchives/2016/01/nigeria-national-archives-kaduna-.html#
  • A study based on the documents: "Convict labour in early colonial Northern Nigeria: a preliminary study," by Mohammed Bashir Salau. Chapter in "From Dust to Digital: Ten Years of the Endangered Archives Programme"  Maja Kominko (ed.) Cambridge : Open Book Publishers, 2016.    1 online resource. https://bit.ly/2OclatD or  http://www.openbookpublishers.com/htmlreader/978-1-78374-062-8/10.Salau.xhtml#_idTextAnchor130

National Security Archive, (George Washington University)
An independent research institute and library in Washington, D.C. which collects and publishes declassified documents acquired through the Freedom of Information Act, FOIA. Their holdings include press clippings on Africa and a Horn of Africa refugees (1979-1984) collection. Their microfiche collection, South Africa: The Making of U.S. Policy, 1962-1989 (2,500 documents on 439 microfiche, cost U.S. $3,900). The collection is held by at least 23 U.S. libraries and Oxford U.; check RLIN or the OCLC World Catalog for a list of these. The site provides information on how to use the FOIA. [KF] http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/
Their Digital National Security Archives has full text documents, mainly one page each, in Adobe PDF format, on U.S. foreign relations. Includes memos, cables re Angola, military training by South Africa for the Contras, African reaction to the Cuban missile crisis, Zambia, Mozambique, etc." The National Security Archive is a non-profit research institute and library in Washington, D.C., which provides .... public access to declassified government documents obtained through extensive use of the US Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)." http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/

National Security Archive (George Washington University) - The U.S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994, Evidence of Inaction
A National Security Archive Briefing Book, edited by William Ferroggiaro, August 20, 2001. Full text of sixteen declassified US government documents [in Adobe PDF] 'detailing how US policymakers chose to be 'bystanders' during the genocide that decimated Rwanda in 1994." [KF] http://www.gwu.edu/%7Ensarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB53/press.html

New York Times - Civil War in the Congo
Current and historical events in the Congo as reported by the NYT's correspondents. Has the Feb. 1961 NYT article announcing Lumumba's murder and other NYT articles from the 1960s to date. http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/africa/index-congo-1998.html

Northern Rhodesians Worldwide
Has stories of life in Northern Rhodesia, historical photographs and excerpts from the "British South Africa Historical Catalogue & Souvenir of Rhodesia from the Empire Exhibition, Johannesburg, 1936-1937." [KF] http://www.niner.net/nr/index.shtml

Northwestern University. Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies - African Posters
Has online images of 77 posters, part of a larger collection. Posters are from anti-apartheid movements, South Africa under apartheid, the 1994 South African election and Lusophone / Southern Africa liberation movements. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/africana/collections/posters/index.html

Parkinson, Alan - National Service Memoirs
"The site contains my army and military experiences whilst serving in the Kings Own Royal Border Regiment as a national serviceman in the Cameroons [1960-1962] and also contains the true story of my time training from Fulwood to Barnard Castle to the Cameroons and back to Barnard Castle." Maintained by Alan Parkinson. [KF] http://www.nationalservicememoirs.co.uk

Qatar Digital Library (Qatar Foundation, the Qatar National Library, and the British Library)
In English and Arabic. "archives, maps, manuscripts, sound recordings, photographs and much more,...with contextualised explanatory notes and links" Has India Office Records 1763–1951.

Topics include slavery, the slave trade, Zanzibar, Mombasa (also spelled mombassa), East Africa.
Articles by experts such as on the India Office Private Papers, Mombasa: Britain’s Shortest-Lived Protectorate?, Between Freedom and Slavery: The Employment of Runaway Slaves in the Indian Navy, The Arabic Manuscripts Collection in the British Library. [KF] http://www.qdl.qa/

Quinzaine coloniale (Paris)
In French. Full text issues of the 1901-1913 indexes are online. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb34425263p/date.r=presence+africaine.langEN

Roosevelt, Theodore - African and European Addresses
Addresses given during Theodore Roosevelt's Journey in 1910 from Khartoum through Europe to New York. Download in various forms (PDF, to your iPod, Palm, etc.) Roosevelt was U.S. President 1901-1909. May 31,1910 he spoke on British Rule in Africa - "I visited four different British protectorates or possessions in Africa??namely, East Africa, Uganda, the Sudan, and Egypt......." He spoke on Peace and Justice in the Sudan. Manybooks supplies free e-books. Text originally from Project Gutenberg. [KF] http://www.manybooks.net/titles/rooseveltth13931393013930-8.html

Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
The well-known branch of the New York Public Library devoted to the history, society, and culture of people of African descent has an online exhibition, the Schomburg Legacy, Documenting the Global Black Experience for the 21st Century.  It features art work, historical documents and letters, the Herskovits Collection, the John Henrik Clarke Collection, the Ralph J. Bunche Collection and other.  The Schomburg's exhibition, Images of African-Americans from the 19th Century, includes photographs of diplomats to Liberia and Bishop Sameul A. Crowther, first African Anglican bishop. [KF] http://www.nypl.org/research/sc/sc.html

Slave Voyages
Trans-Atlantic and Intra-American slave trade databases. Timeline and chronology, maps. African Names database.  Types of African resistance, vessel names, captain's names, starting & ending ports, "place of purchase",  lesson plans for grades 6-12. Site creators include Emory University, University of California - Irvine, University of Califorrnia - Santa Cruz, Harvard University. https://slavevoyages.org/ See also the Slavery section. [KF]

South African Historical Documents - African National Congress site
The site maintained by the African National Congress has the full-text of primary documents - speeches by Albert J. Lutuli, Oliver Tambo, Mandela, G. M. Naicker, Yusuf Dadoo, Olof Palme, documents from Umkhonto we Sizwe, the OAU and the UN, documents concerning women in the struggle, the text of leaflet bomb fliers, biographies of leaders, etc. [KF] http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/

[Speedy] Sarah Speedy: Daughter of Colonel Squire, Wife of Major Speedy ~ Recollections 1818 to 1859
Edited by Allan Lawrence Tristram Speedy. Full text account. 33 p. Sarah Speedy relates her travels in India, Mauritius, South Africa from 1818-1859, meeting with Robert Moffat, the missionary, helping Colonel Graham mark out Grahamstown and other events. Allan Speedy, the great great grandson of Sarah Speedy, lives in New Zealand. [KF] http://www.speedy.co.nz/recollections/

Stanford University. Primary Sources on Microfilm
Selected primary sources on microfilm available at Stanford Univeresity, Stanford, California. Missionary records, slave trade resources.

[Suttner] Bertha von Suttner: Memoiren, Stuttgart und Leipzig: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1909
In German. von Suttner was a Austrian pacifist, writer, Nobel Peace Prize winner. Her memoirs mention the defeat of the Italians at Adowa and the Italian anti-war movement. (Her memoirs translated into English - Memoirs of Bertha vaon Suttner). See a biography in the Encyclopedia of world biography (Gale Research). Document in the TextGrid Repository (Wikipedia article). TextGrid is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. http://www.textgridrep.de/browse.html?id=textgrid:w42b.0

Twain, Mark - King Leopold's Soliloquy
Full text / illustrations of Twain's work expressing his opposition to imperialism. On Jim Zwick's web site, "Mark Twain's Anti-imperialist Writings: a Guide to Online Resources." http://marktwain.miningco.com/library/texts/bl_kls01.htm

United States, Army Service Forces. Special Service Division, A Pocket guide to West Africa
Prepared by Special Service Division, Army Service Forces, United States Army. Full text. 27 pages, in Adobe PDF. (Washington, D.C. : War and Navy Departments : U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943.) http://digitallibrary.smu.edu/cul/gir/ww2/pdf/w0033.pdf
Topics include: The Value of Good Will, French West Africa, British West Africa, Portuguese Guinea, Liberia, How Africans Live, How to Make Friends, Things to Do and Not to Do. From Southern Methodist University. World War II: 1939-1945. Historic Government Publications from World War II. [KF] http://digitallibrary.smu.edu/

United States, Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, 19th Century maps of Liberia
"...includes twenty examples from the American Colonization Society (ACS), organized in 1817 to resettle free black Americans in West Africa. These maps show early settlements in Liberia, indigenous political subdivisions, and some of the building lots that were assigned to settlers. This on-line presentation also includes other nineteenth-century maps of Liberia: a map prepared for a book first published in the 1820's by ACS agent Jehudi Ashmun, a map showing the areas in Liberia that were ceded to the society by indigenous chiefs, and a detailed map dated 1869 by a man thought to be the black American explorer Benjamin Anderson."  Has a History of Liberia Timeline. [KF] http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/libhtml/libhome.html

Universite Laval. Groupe d'etude et de recherche sur les societes africaines
In French.  "...un groupe de professeurs de la Faculte des sciences sociales a cree en 1997 le Groupe d'etude et de recherche sur les societes africaines (GERSA)."   Hosts an exhibit of historical Mali postcards, part of a cd-rom on West African postcards.  http://www.fss.ulaval.ca/gersa/

University of Botswana, History Department, Botswana History
The Colonial Administration section has extracts from primary documents. See the list of documents. http://ubh.tripod.com/

University of Virginia. Jackson Davis Collection (1915-1930)
Over 400 photographs (with almost no descriptions) from various African countries (Uganda,  Zimbabwe, Liberia, Congo, etc.). Part of 4,000 photographs of African-American educational scenes in the southern United States. Photographs by Jackson Davis ca. 1915-1930 taken when he was with the General Education Board in New York, New York.[KF] http://www.lib.virginia.edu/speccol/jdavis/

University of Wisconsin Libraries. Africana Digitization Project
Full text of rare Africana, in English or translated into English. See the Copyright notice for use. http://libtext.library.wisc.edu/Africana/
Titles include:


Wallace, Marion - Digital Sources in Europe for African History
Very extensive directory of online historical sources by Dr Marion Wallace, Lead Curator, African Collections at the British Library. Includes "Tips for Research and Searching" and "Digital Collections Dealing with Liberation Struggles in Southern Africa." Part of the Oxford Research Encyclopedias site. http://oxfordre.com/africanhistory/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190277734.001.0001/acrefore-9780190277734-e-338

West African Arabic Manuscript Database - Arabic Manuscript Management System, AMMS
A bi-lingual union catalog of records for over 20,000 Arabic manuscripts from West Africa. Find citations by authors, nicknames, titles, subjects. Includes manuscripts from Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Northern Nigeria and from collections in Paris and Northwestern Univ. The documents represent "the literary activity of Muslim literati in the Sahel region during the approximately 150 years prior to colonial conquest." Includes an early version of the essay, “The Historic ‘Core Curriculum,’ and the Book Market in Islamic West Africa” by Bruce Hall and Charles Stewart.  Charles C. Stewart, Professor, Department of History, University of Illinois, Champaign is General Editor. [KF] http://westafricanmanuscripts.org/

Wise's World Paper Money Collection
A great collection of scanned images of African and other paper money. Dates vary for each country, some from 1919 to the 1990s. See French West African currency from the 1930s and 40s or Biafra's currency. Many have portraits of African leaders. Ronald Wise, Jr. works at Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis. [KF] http://aes.iupui.edu/rwise/notedir/africa.html

Woodrow Wilson Center. Cuba and Southern Africa
"Cuban documents [1976-1989 January] about Havana's policy toward Southern Africa in the final fifteen years of the Cold War. Obtained by Piero Gleijeses [Professor of American Foreign Policy and Latin American Studies, Johns Hopkins University] for his book "Visions of Freedom: Havana, Washington, Pretoria, and the Struggle for Southern Africa, 1976–1991." Has many documents; Professor Gleijeses notes that documents were redacted by Cuba. The Wilson Center is based in Washington, D. C. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/collection/173/cuba-and-southern-africa

World Digital Library
In seven languages. Primary sources world wide. Antiquarian African maps, Arabic manuscripts from Timbuktu, early 20th century photographs, text of the speech by Nigerian independence leader Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-96) on the day he became governor-general of Nigeria, South African San rock paintings, early travel journals. Supported by the U.S. Library of Congress, UNESCO, and National Libraries world wide. http://www.wdl.org/

World Digital Library - Travels into the Inland Parts of Africa: Containing a Description of the Several Nations for the Space of Six Hundred Miles up the River Gambia.
A 1730s journal of Francis Moore of the  the Royal African Company, concerns pre-colonial Gambia and the slave trade. Maintained by the U.S. Library of Congress. https://www.wdl.org/en/item/650/

[Wurno] - Malam Haliru Muhammad Wurno
"Malam Haliru Muhammad Wurno was a historian who lived in Wurno Nigeria, sometime capital of the Sokoto Caliphate and final resting place of Sultan Muhammad Bello and other rulers and Wazirs of the Caliphate." The documents are in Arabic and posted by Prof. John Edward Philips who hopes that site visitors will contribute to this experiment in web publication of a collective translation of Haliru's writings. Prof. Philips teaches at Hirosaki University in Japan. [KF] http://human.cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp/philips/Haliru/haliru.htm or http://www2.gol.com/users/philips/Haliru/haliru.htm