African Slave Trade and Slavery

African slave trade and slavery

See also: African Diaspora


1619 Project - New York Times
In 1619 "a ship arrived at Point Comfort in the British colony of Virginia, bearing a cargo of 20 to 30 enslaved Africans." "The goal of The 1619 Project is to reframe American history by considering what it would mean to regard 1619 as our nation’s birth year. Doing so requires us to place the consequences of slavery and the contributions of black Americans at the very center of the story we tell ourselves about who we are as a country."

1619 Project Curriculum - Pulitzer Center
"the year when the first enslaved Africans arrived on Virginia soil as our nation's foundational date."
Resources for law school professors, Lesson plans for schools.
Based in Washington, D.C.

An Account of the Congo Independent State, by Henry Phillips, Jr.
Full text on-line. In Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 26, No. 130 (Jul., 1889), pp. 459-476. From Google Books.

Africa, the Cradle of Human Diversity: Cultural and Biological Approaches to Uncover African Diversity
Editors: Cesar Fortes-Lima, Ezekia Mtetwa, and Carina Schlebusch
Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2021
Series: Africa-Europe Group for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol. 26
Free open access book.
Chapter 5. Diversity and Variability in the Preindustrial Iron-Smelting Technologies of Great Zimbabwe, Southern Africa. By Ezekia Mtetwa
Chapter 10. Disentangling the Impact of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in African Diaspora Populations from a Genomic Perspective. By Cesar A. Fortes-Lima

African Diaspora Archeology Network
Full text issues of its ADAN newsletter. Operates a discussion forum. Maintained by Dr. Christopher C. Fennell, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. [KF]

African Studies Center, Leiden. Library - Indian Ocean Slave Trade
Essay by Rijksmuseum (Amstrdam, Netherlands) Curator Maria Holtrop, extensive list of publications and web sites.

African Studies Quarterly - A Roundtable on Reparations
Includes "From Slave Ship to Space Ship: Africa Between Marginalization and Globalization" by Ali Mazrui, "Political Versus Legal Strategies for the African Slavery Reparations Movement" by Ricardo Laremont, "The Debt Has Not Been Paid; the Accounts Have Not Been Settled" by Dudley Thompson. Volume 2, Issue 4, [1998]. Electronic journal published by the Univ. of Florida, Center for African Studies.

Africans in America - October 19-22, 1998
"...a companion to Africans in America, a six-hour public television series. The Web site chronicles the history of racial slavery in the United States -- from the start of the Atlantic slave trade in the 16th century to the end of the American Civil War in 1865 -- " Covers People & Events, Historical Documents; has a Teacher's Guide.

AfriGeneas, African Ancestored Genealogy
Has an beginners' guide, discussion list, surnames database, U.S. censuses, a description of the Louisiana Slave Database, 1719-1820, ny Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, and other databases, transcripts of America On Line interviews in the Genealogy Forum with Professor Gwendolyn Midlo Hall and others, newspaper / journal articles, related sites. [KF]

Afro-Louisiana History and Genealogy, 1719-1820
Dr. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, New Orleans writer and historian, assembled over 15 years a database of 100,000 slaves brought to Louisiana in the 18th and 19th centuries. Information was gathered from courthouses in Louisiana, and archives in France, Spain and Texas. Dr. Hall's database contains information about African slave names, gender, ages, occupations, illnesses, family relationships, ethnicity, places of origin, prices paid by slave owners, and slaves' testimony and emancipations. Through the free online database " locate individual slaves who lived in Louisiana between the years of 1718 and 1820..." Search by name, origin of the slaves, gender, racial designation, or plantation location. Includes a listing of slaves with African names, slaves involved in a conspiracy or a revolt against slavery, charts of characteristics, etc. One can download the slave database.

Ajayi, J. F. Ade - Unfinished Business: Confronting the Legacies of Slavery and Colonialism in Africa
18 p. in PDF. By Professor J. F. Ade Ajayi. "development remains elusive in Africa, not merely because of the misrule and warped personalities of many African leaders, but because Africa had been damaged severely, first by the slave trade, then by the colonialism which grew out of the slave trade."

Alpers, Edward A. - Sailing Into the Past. The African Experience in India
Article in Samar 13: Winter/Spring, 2000." "an overview of the history of Africans in India within the wider context of the African diaspora, and ........their presence in other regions of the Indian Ocean." " the meaningful presence of Africans in India probably dates from the rise of Islam in the seventh century c.e.," "The most renowned representative of this class of African slaves in India was Malik Ambar, ruler of Ahmadnagar from 1600 to 1626."

American Colonization Society, Library of Congress Exhibit
The U.S. Library of Congress holds the records of the American Colonization Society which established Liberia. Exhibit descriptions provide historical background on this period. The Colonization section is part of the African-American Mosaic exhibit.

Amistad America
Site for Freedom Schooner Amistad and Amistad America. The Freedom Schooner visits U.S. and international ports providing educational programs, interviews with the captain or crew on the history and the significance of the Amistad story, the transatlantic slave trade and present-day race relations. Recounts the story of the 1839 Amistad incident. Extensive curriculum resource center for elementary, middle school, and high school lesson plans. Based in New Haven, Connecticut.

Atlas of Mutual Heritage (Amsterdam)
A data-bank on the Dutch East India Company trading posts and settlements which will include paintings, drawings, maps (Madagascar, South Africa), prints and photographs (Accra, Ghana, South Africa). "The first stage of the project involves the collation of illustrative data in the collections of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Rijksdienst voor de Monumentenzorg in Zeist and the Algemeen Rijksarchief in The Hague. Stage 2 will include the collation of illustrative data relating to Dutch East India Co. settlements in other collections in the Netherlands and abroad." "The data-bank is primarily intended for storing information relating to VOC settlements in Africa and Asia as well as illustrations of these settlements. The AMH data-bank can also be adapted for supplementary modules: for example, the Portuguese East India Company, embassies and expeditions, Dutch monuments overseas from 1800 to the present day."

Baquaqua, Mahommah Gardo. ; Moore, Samuel,; fl. 1854 - Biography of Mahommah G. Baquaqua a native of Zoogoo, in the interior of Africa (a convert of Christianity)
With a description of that part of the world, including the manners and customs of the inhabitants. Mahommah's early life, his education, his capture and slavery in Western Africa and Brazil, his escape to the United States, from thence to Hayti, (the city of Port Au Prince,) his reception by the Baptist Missionary there, the Rev. L. Judd; his conversion to Christianity, Baptism, and return to this country, his views, objects and aims. Full text. Detroit: Geo. E. Pomeroy & Co., 1854. 66 p. Electronic version by [Chapel Hill, N.C.] :; Academic Affairs Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001. "Includes information about Central Africa "their religious notions, form of government, laws, appearance of the country, buildings, agriculture, manufactures, shepherds and herdsmen, domestic animals, marriage ceremonials, funeral services, styles of dress, trade and commerce, modes of warfare, system of slavery, &c., &c."

Benezet, Anthony - Some Historical Account of Guinea, Its Situation, Produce, and the General Disposition of Its Inhabitants and An Inquiry into the Rise and Progress of the Slave Trade, Its Nature and Lamentable Effects
Originally published (Philadelphia, 1771. c. 200 pages). Full text. From Project Gutenberg.

Black History Canada
In English and French. Annotated online resources about Canada's Black history. Mathieu Da Costa (a free Black African translator); Slavery in Canada; Timeline; Teachers' Section. "compiled by editors from The Canadian Encyclopedia (Historica-Dominion Institute) in consultation with Rosemary Sadlier, President of the Ontario Black History Society."

Breaking the Silence. The Transatlantic Slave Trade Education Project [UNESCO Digital Library]
"a joint initiative between UNESCO, Anti-Slavery International, the British Council and the Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation (NORAD)." Based in London, England. [KF]

Brinch, Boyrereau [Benjamin F. (Benjamin Franklin) Prentiss, 1774 or 5-1817] - "The Blind African Slave, or Memoirs of Boyrereau Brinch, Nick-named Jeffrey Brace
Containing an Account of the Kingdom of Bow-Woo, in the Interior of Africa; with the Climate and Natural Productions, Laws, and Customs Peculiar to That Place. With an Account of His Captivity, Sufferings, Sales, Travels, Emancipation, Conversion to the Christian Religion, Knowledge of the Scriptures, &c. Interspersed with Strictures on Slavery, Speculative Observations on the Qualities of Human Nature, with Quotation from Scripture." Imprint: St. Albans, Vt.: Printed by Harry Whitney, 1810. 204 p. Full text of the book. Part of the Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Documenting the American South, North American Slave Narratives site.

Bristol and the Transatlantic Slave Trade
Compiled by Dr Madge Dresser and the Bristol Museums Black History Steering Group.

British Broadcasting Company. The Story of Africa
Older site, text only. "...the history of the continent from an African perspective." "from the origins of humankind to the end of South African apartheid" by major African historians (Jacob Ajayi, George Abungu, Director-General of the National Museums of Kenya and others). Each segment has a timeline, bibliography, useful links.

British History Online
Subscription is required for access. Covers England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales. From the Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust. Database of primary and secondary sources, images and maps. Focus is on the period between 1300 and 1800. List of the British Secretaries of State 1794-1870. If you register (free), you can save a personal bookshelf of links to useful resources and use a split screen feature to compare two documents simultaneously. Based in London.

Lists theses in Africa in History Theses 1901-1970: Historical research for higher degrees in the universities of the United Kingdom. Originally published by Institute of Historical Research, London, 1976.
Full text of the House of Commons Journal. Examples:

  • Report from Committee on Sierra Leone, No. 661. From: 'House of Commons Journal Volume 85: 13 July 1830', Journal of the House of Commons: volume 85: 1830, pp. 640-45. URL:
  • Petitions for abolition of Slavery. From: 'House of Commons Journal Volume 85: 13 July 1830', Journal of the House of Commons: volume 85: 1830, pp. 640-45. URL:
  • the Slave Trade - The trade in general has suffered greatly since I have known it, both as to the difficulty of obtaining slaves, and the price at which they are purchased; in the year 1763 a male slave might be bought at about £13 sterling, which now costs £23 gold, which is become a necessary article in the purchase of a slave, is obtained by the free trader with great difficulty. 

British Newspaper Archive
Read newspapers online.  Register with a password to see 3 free pages. $100 a year for unlimited accesses for individuals.  "a partnership between the British Library and findmypast to digitise up to 40 million newspaper pages from the British Library's vast collection"
Libraries subscribe to commercial databases which have newspapes. For ex. Nineteenth Century Collections has the newspapers African Mail, African World. British Citizen and Empire Worker.

British Online Archive. Slavery: supporters and abolitionists, 1675-1865
Requires a subscription. "documents concerning the African slave trade during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The papers focus primarily on Jamaica and the West Indies, but also cover the experience of other nations and regions."  Statistics, correspondence, pamphlets, memoir. Resources from the Bodleian Library, British Library, and others. Published by Microform Academic Publishers.  Temporary URL for Stanford trial access -

Topics include:
Report of the Commissioners on African Settlements: report on the slave trade', 1811; 
Report of the Select Committee on the West Coast of Africa, 1842; and 
'Ord report on the West Coast of Africa', 1865.  Formal title: Report of Colonel Ord, the Commissioner appointed to inquire into the condition of the British settlements on the West coast of Africa.
The trade in people: The slave trade in Africa and the West Indies.
Scottish trade with Africa and the West Indies in the early 18th century, 1694-1709.
Log and journal of the Bristol ship, Black Prince, 1762-1764', these detailed records reveal both where slaves were boarded and details of slave trading which took place on-board the ship. In cursive, can be difficult to read.

Some of the above is in - U.K. parliamentary papers.  Subscription database from Chadwyck-Healey,Proquest.

Bruner, Edward M. - "Tourism in Ghana: Representation of Slavery and the Return of the Black Diaspora"
Article in American Anthropologist, Journal of the American Anthropological Association, Volume 98, Number 2, June 1996, 290-304. Article reprinted on the web site of Manu Herbstein. The site is about Herbstein's book, "Ama, A Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade."

Cambridge University Press - Race and Power Collection: Slavery
"a quarterly updated assortment of free online book chapters and journal articles that explores the intertwining concepts of race and power, on a global scale, from an interdisciplinary perspective."


  • Slavery and Slaving in African History
  • Sean Stilwell
  • The Enslavement of Africans, 1600–1800
  • Paul E. Lovejoy, York University, Toronto

  • Transformations in Slavery
  • A History of Slavery in Africa
  • 3rd edition
  • Paul E. Lovejoy

    Slavery and the slave trade in the Lower Senegal
  • James F. Searing, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Carey, Brycchan - "Ignatius Sancho: African Man of Letters"
 "Sancho (1729-1780) was born a slave on a ship crossing the Atlantic from Africa to the West Indies." "He composed music, appeared on the stage, and wrote a large number of letters which were collected and published in 1782, two years after his death." Has the full text of Joseph Jekyll's biography of Sancho, an annotated bibliography (including reviews, 19th c. commentary, music), selections from Sancho's Letters, biographies of those who knew him, maps and paintings of London in the mid 18th c., links to related sites, etc. Dr. Carey is a lecturer at Kingston University (Surrey, U.K.).

Carey, Brycchan - "Olaudah Equiano, or, Gustavus Vassa, the African"
"Equiano (c.1745-1797) was born in what is now Nigeria. Kidnapped and sold into slavery in childhood..." "Coming to London he became involved in the movement to abolish the slave trade, an involvement which led to him writing and publishing The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa the African (1789) a strongly abolitionist autobiography." Has a map of Equiano's travels, an annotated bibliography, extracts from The Interesting Narrative..., arguments for and against the birthplace of Equiano, related web sites, etc.

Carey, Brycchan - "Quobna Ottobah Cugoano"
"Quobna Ottabah Cugoano was born in present-day Ghana in the 1750s. Kidnapped and taken into slavery, he worked on plantations in Granada before being brought to England, where he obtained his freedom." Site under construction.

Carey, Brycchan - Slavery Chronology
A chronology of slavery, abolition, and emancipation, from the fifteenth century to the present day with details of the main historical and cultural events related to slavery. Dr. Carey is Lecturer in English Literature, Kingston University, U.K. [KF]

Christine's Genealogy Website - Emigrants to Liberia
Links to sites with primary documents on the first Liberian emigrants. Has a Roll of Emigrants that have been sent to the colony of Liberia, Western Africa, by the American Colonization Society and its auxiliaries, to September, 1843, &c. with full text of passages from "Information relative to the operations of the United States squadron on the west coast of Africa, the condition of the American colonies there, and the commerce of the United States therewith," 28th Congress, 2d. Session, S. Doc. 150, serial 458. Includes 19th censuses, ships' passenger lists, etc. Maintained by Christine Charity, based in Pontiac, Michigan.

Colonial Voyage
Revolt of the slaves on Sao Tome, West Africa List of Portuguese colonial forts. List of Dutch colonial forts. Dutch in South Africa, Portuguese language heritage in Africa, European forts in Ghana, Madagascar, the Dutch in Mauritius, Bibliographies such as Dutch colonial history. Photographs. Maintained by Marco Ramerini from Firenze, Italy.

Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East (CSSAAME)
Trade, Politics, and Identity in the Colonial Indian Ocean. Volume XIX, No. 2, 1999 is a special issue guest edited by Edward A. Alpers. Pub. by Duke University Press.
Requires a subscription. Full text articles include:

  • Edward Alpers - Introduction. Trade, Politics and Identity in the Colonial Indian Ocean 2 p. in PDF. V
  • ijaya Teelock: The Influence of Slavery in the Formation of Creole Identity; [Mauritius]
  • Erik Gilbert: Sailing from Lamu and Back: Labor Migration and Regional Trade in Colonial East Africa
  • Charles Schaefer: "Selling at a Wash": Competition and the Indian Merchant Community in Aden Crown Colony
  • James R. Brennan: South Asian Nationalism in an East African Context: The Case of Tanganyika, 1914-1956.

Conference 2008 - Slavery and the Slave Trades in the Indian Ocean and Arab Worlds: Global Connections and Disconnections, Yale University, November 7-8
Site has closed.

Conference 2005 - Legacies of Slavery: Comparative Perspectives, 11 July 2005, Centre for Cross-Cultural Research, Australian National University
"...seeks to bring together scholars from history, literature, anthropology, art history and cultural studies to examine the indelible mark left by slavery on societies, ..." Site has closed.

Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
Biographies of persons who died between the years 1000 and 1930. Has a biography of Richard Pierpoint (sold as a slave from Senegal). A joint project of the University of Toronto and the Université Laval. [KF]

Digital Slavery Research Lab
Focuses on developing,.... archiving open-source data and multimedia related to slavery and human trafficking. ..... examines the historic Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and trans-Saharan slave trades. Based at the University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado.
Included are -

  • the Liberated Africans Project
  • Accounts of freed slaves and of the international courts which freed them (including the Sierra Leone Vice-Admiralty Court and the Havana Slave Trade Commission). "Between 1808 and 1896, international authorities began to seize and detain ships suspected of participating in the slave trade. Once these ships were seized or detained, a network of international courts "decided the fates of the survivors." Essays. Photographs and documents from the British National Archives, the Sierra Leone National Archives, other African archives and missionary societies. [KF]

  • The Yoruba Diaspora: A Cartographically Based Interactive Digital Archive (CBIDA)
  • Henry B. Lovejoy, has compiled geo-referenced data that are aligned with slave voyages to visualize the process whereby inland conflict became a source of captives who boarded slave ships destined for the Americas. The geographic scope of the project reflects an area in southwestern Nigeria, as well as parts of Benin and Togo. In the past, this area was dominated by several kingdoms that engaged in trading enslaved people. "

Documenting the American South
Has full text primary sources (books, monographs) including works by African-American missionaries in Africa, slaves' accounts of Africa. The Education section has Lessons Plans. From the University Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963 - The Souls of Black Folk; Essays and Sketches
Project Gutenberg provides the full-text of the book. Many editions were published beginning with the first edition in 1903.

DuBois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963 - Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America 1638-1870
New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1896. Project Gutenberg provides the full-text of the book.

Enslaved. Peoples of the Historic Slave Trade
A hub for web sites on the slave trade. Uses Linked Open Data (LOD) to interconnect individual projects and databases.  Track slaves who appear in multiple databases and run statistical analyses across many datasets rather than only one. Supported by the Mellon Foundation, Michigan State Univ. and others.

  • Journal of Slavery and Data Preservation "publishes original, peer-reviewed datasets about the lives of enslaved Africans and their descendants drawn from documents produced from the fifteenth to the early twentieth centuries." Based at Michigan State University, East Lansign, Michigan.

Enslaved Spaces
A map illustrating the history and geography of the slave trade in West and Central Africa between 1440-1860. Sites of slavery in Africa served three systems: the domestic slave trade, the trans-Saharan slave trade, and the transatlantic slave trade. Hosted by The African Diaspora Institute of Cultural Exchange and Historical Research, Inc. (C.E.H.R.). Based in Bronx, New York.

Equiano, Olaudah b. 1745 - The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. Written by Himself
Vol. I. London: Author, [1789]. Full text of the book. Electronic version by [Chapel Hill, N.C.] :; Academic Affairs Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001.
See also the site Carey, Brycchan - "Olaudah Equiano, or, Gustavus Vassa, the African."

Esclavages & Post-esclavages /Slaveries & Post~Slaveries
Open access online journal began 2019. "revue internationale semestrielle. Pluridisciplinaire et multilingue, elle explore les spécificités des situations d’esclavages et de post-esclavages dans le monde, de l’Antiquité à nos jours." "éditée par le Centre international de recherches sur les esclavages et post-esclavages (CIRESC)."  History, literature and the arts in relatin to slavery and post-slavery. Based in Paris.  

France. Sénat - Victor Schoelcher (1804-1893). Une vie, un siècle. L'esclavage d'hier à aujourd'hui
In French. Schoelcher fought to abolish slavery. Includes a chronology, modern day slavery, citations to books, articles (mainly in French).

In French. Books, articles, documents, maps, audio, photographs digitized by France's Bibliotheque nationale.

George Mason University. Center for History and New Media - Women in World History
Primary sources about women and gender with guidelines to using primary sources. Sources include excerpts from the 17th c. Journal of Jan van Riebeeck, letters of the grand-daughter of Jan van Riebeeck, rock art of the San, drawings, narrative of the Cape (Southern Africa) 1705 to 1713, the situation of slaves in the Cape, letter of Mary Moffat, narrative by Mary Kingsley, autobiography of Buchi Emecheta, African novels, excerpt from Tsitsi Dangarembga's novel Nervous Conditions.
Has a case study by Beverly Mack on Nana Asma'u, Muslim Woman Scholar and one by Jeremy D. Popkin, The Calling of Katie Makanya (South Africa 1873-1956) and a classroom module on Cultural Contact in Southern Africa (17th century including slavery). Holds online forums for teachers; the forum beginning October 1, 2005 is Women in World History. Beginning November 2005 is a forum on Women in Africa.

Google Books
Search for slave trade in Africa. On the top left where it says Any books, Select from the pull down menu
Free Google eBooks
Has lots of online keyword searchable [out of copyright] books.

Handler, Jerome
Jerome Handler's publications dealing with slavery in Barbados and the Atlantic World as well as some aspects of production activities in modern rural Barbados.

Hansard Corpus. British Parliament.
This Hansard corpus (or collection of texts) "contains nearly every speech given in the British Parliament from 1803-2005 (about 1.6 billion words total), and it allows you to search these speeches (including semantically-based searches)..." Search for speeches with the word slave, slavery.

Harvard Dataverse. World-Historical Dataverse
The public archive of the CHIA project, Collaborative for Historical Information and Analysis. Links academic and research institutions in North America and Europe—with ties to institutions in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Has -
Volume and Direction of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1650s-1870s: Patrick Manning, 2016
Slave Routes Datasets, 1650s - 1860s: Patrick Manning; Yu Liu, 2020
Annual cowrie exported from English to West Africa, 1700 to 1850: Jan Hogendorn, 2015

Annual cowrie exported from Dutch to West Africa, 1700 to 1799: Jan Hogendorn, 2015
Replication data for: African Population Estimates, 1850-1960:  Patrick Manning 2010

Hathi Trust
Has some full text books and documents. Some are the same as in Google Books.
Use the left hand menu,to Filter your search to
Full View
Use the Advanced Catalog Search and in the Subject box put in
Slave trade africa
The limited view titles can also lead you to interesting books.

Herbstein, Manu - "Ama: A Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade"
Site for a 450 page novel on Ama, captured and enslaved in Ghana in the eighteenth century and taken to a sugar estate in Brazil. The novel recounts "the experience of enslavement and resistance, seen from the point of view of one African slave." Has excerpts and maps from the novel, bibliographies of related sources, excerpts from books related to Attitudes to Slavery and the Slave Trade, links to related sites. Manu Herbstein's book won the 2002 Commonwealth Writers Prize for Best First Book overall and for the Africa Region.

Access by Subscription only; some universities subscribe. There are links to on-line book reviews. Once you are within the book site, you can do keyword searches of the text.
Historians from the African Studies Association are selecting Africa-related titles.

Moderated discussion list "to promote interaction and exchange among scholars engaged in research on slavery, the slave trade, abolition, and emancipation....dedicated to the dissemination of information about the history of slavery and antislavery in all time periods and parts of the world." Subscribe at or at
To subscribe by e-mail, send a message from the account where
you wish to receive mail, to:
(with no signatures or styled text) and only this text:
sub H-Slavery firstname lastname, institution
Example: sub H-Slavery Leslie Jones, Pacific State U

International Slavery Museum, Liverpool, England
History of the slave trade (Africa before European slavery, European traders, Life on board slave ships, Arrival in the Americas, booklist, web sites). Videos, photographs. The Museum opened in 2007, the bicentenary of the 1807 British abolition of the slave trade.
See the New York Times article, A New Museum Is Frank in Its Exploration of the Slave-Trading Past, August 22, 2007

Internet African History Sourcebook - Paul Halsall
Has many full-text sources on the Impact of Slavery, including excerpts from "Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, The African" (London, 1789). Maintained by Paul Halsall, Fordham University. [KF]

Liberated Africans Project
Accounts of freed slaves andof the international courts which freed them (including the Sierra Leone Vice-Admiralty Court and the Havana Slave Trade Commission). "Between 1808 and 1896, international authorities began to seize and detain ships suspected of participating in the slave trade. Once these ships were seized or detained, a network of international courts "decided the fates of the survivors." Essays. Photographs and documents from the British National Archives, the Sierra Leone National Archives, other African archives and missionary societies.  [KF]

Library of Congress - Ancient Manuscripts from the Desert Libraries of Timbuktu
"Dating from the 16th to the 18th centuries, the ancient manuscripts... are indicative of the high level of civilization attained by West Africans during the Middle Ages." "The manuscripts...are from the Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library and the Library of Cheick Zayni Baye of Boujbeha,..." Has images of the documents which concern Islamic knowledge of astronomy, law, the Songhai Empire, slavery, Sufi religion, mathematics, political governance, medical knowledge, attitude towards non-Muslims, trade. [KF]

Library of Congress - Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938 
"more than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and 500 black-and-white photographs of former slaves. Stanford also has the microfilm at

Library of Congress - Islamic Manuscripts from Mali
"...twenty-two Islamic manuscripts [in Arabic script] containing important insights into the life and culture of West Africans during the late Middle Ages and Early Modern Era." Topics include astrology, commerce, Islamic law, health care, mysticism, slavery, and agriculture. A project of the Library of Congress and the Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library of Timbuktu, Mali. photographs of Mali by Philip Harrington, as well as a selection of maps from the Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division.
Includes maps - Timbuktu in Space and Time, a history of Timbuktu as an Islamic cultural center, and Timbuktu architecture.

Library of Congress - Omar Ibn Said Collection 
In English and Arabic. Said was a West African slave in America from the Fula ethnic group. This is the "only known extant autobiography of a slave written in Arabic in America." Has an English translation of the autobiography. 42 documents  Also icludes accounts from a West African slave in Panama, and individuals located in West Africa.

Livingstone, David, "Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa"
Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa; Including a Sketch of Sixteen Years' Residence in the Interior of Africa, and a Journey from the Cape of Good Hope to Loanda on the West Coast; Thence Across the Continent, Down the River Zambesi, to the Eastern Ocean. (London, 1857). Full-text of the book with information on slavery. Part of Project Gutenberg. Includes an 1858 review of the book in Harper's Magazine. [KF]

Livingstone (David) David Linvingstone Trust - National Memorial, Blantyre, Scotland
About the Livingstone Centre in Blantyre where Livingstone was born. Includes a biography of Livingstone.

Lodhi, Abdulaziz Y. - The Institution of Slavery in Zanzibar and Pemba
(Research Report 16) 43 p. Uppsala, Sweden, Scandivavian Institute of African Studies (now Nordiska Afrikainstitutet), 1973. Full text report. Appendix I: Categories of Africans and Arabs. [KF]

Lovejoy, Paul - "The African Diaspora: Revisionist Interpretations of Ethnicity, Culture and Religion under Slavery"
On the Internet Archive: Wayback Machine.

Lovejoy, Paul E. (ed.) / Africans in bondage: studies in slavery and the slave trade: essays in honor of Philip D. Curtin on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of African Studies at the University of Wisconsin (1986)
Full text. From the University of Wisconsin Libraries.

  • Chapter 1: when did smallpox reach the New World (and why does it matter)?, Henige, David
  • Chapter 2: the company trade and the numerical distribution of slaves to Spanish America, 1703-1739, Palmer, Colin A.
  • Chapter 3: slave prices in the Portuguese southern Atlantic, 1600-1830, Miller, Joseph C.
  • Chapter 6: Anast?cia and the slave women of Rio de Janeiro, Karasch, Mary
  • Chapter 5: healing and race in the South Carolina low country, Shick, Tom W.
  • Chapter 6: the slave trade in Niger Delta oral tradition and history, Alagoa, E. J.
  • Chapter 7: the Atlantic slave trade and the Gabon Estuary: the Mpongwe to 1860, Bucher, Henry
  • Chapter 8: Kru emigration to British and French Guiana, 1841-1857, Schuler, Monica
  • Chapter 9: slave trade, "legitimate" trade, and imperialism revisited: the control of wealth in the Bights of Benin and Biafra, Manning, Patrick
  • Chapter 10: problems of slave control in the Sokoto Caliphate, Lovejoy, Paul E.
  • Chapter 11: ex-slaves, transfrontiersmen and the slave trade: the Chikunda of the Zambesi Valley, 1850-1900, Isaacman, Allen
  • Chapter 12: slaves into soldiers: social origins of the Tirailleurs Senegalais, Echenberg, Myron
  • Chapter 13: warlords and enslavement: a sampleof slave raiders from eastern Ubangi-Shari, 1870-1920, Cordell, Dennis D.

Mali Magic - Google Arts & Culture
Mali's manuscripts, music, monuments & contemporary Mali art.
Short general articles, are not signed. Many images, photographs of Mali.
Includes -

Reflections on Slavery and Human Rights in Timbuktu
How Timbuktu Protected Its Trove of Manuscripts
The Art of Storytelling in the Timbuktu Manuscripts
The Timbuktu Manuscripts and the Human Right to Education
Timbuktu Home to a Humanist and Tolerant Islam
Malian Medical Manuscripts
Early Exploration of the Earth and Stars
The Role of Mathematics in the Peace (and Manuscripts) of Timbuktu

Mariners Museum. Water of Depair, Waters of Hope. African Americans and the Chesapeake Bay
Short articles on the slave trade. Based in Newport News, Virginia.

Massachusetts Historical Society - African Americans and the End of Slavery in Massachusetts
Historical manuscripts and rare published works on the lives of African Americans in Massachusetts from the late seventeenth century through the abolition of slavery in Massachusetts in the 1780s. "Massachusetts and Rhode Island were the principal slave trading colonies in New England."

Mémoire libérées. Tourisme et Dialogue des Mémoires autour des sites de l'Esclavage
In French. "L’association Les Anneaux de la Mémoire, créée en 1991, a pour objectif de mieux faire connaître l’histoire de la traite négrière, de l’esclavage et de leurs conséquences contemporaine...." Online exhibition on the Atlantic slave trade. Has projects in Senegal and Cameroun, Antigua & Barbuda and Haiti.  Based in Nantes, France. [KF]

Mintz, Stephen - Excerpts from Slave Narratives
Primary documents including:

  • A European slave trader, John Barbot, describes the African slave trade (1682)
  • A Muslim merchant, Ayubah Suleiman Diallo, recalls his capture and enslavement (1733)
  • Olaudah Equiano, an 11-year old Ibo from Nigeria remembers his kidnapping into slavery (1789)
  • Olaudah Equiano describes West African religious beliefs and practices (1789)
  • Charles Ball remembers a slave funeral, which incorporated traditional African customs (1837). Prof. Mintz teaches in the Department of History, University of Texas (Austin). [KF]

Mystic Seaport Museum
Has THE AMISTAD REBELLION by Dr. Marcus Rediker and for educators, The Amistad Case with primary sources from the U.S.National Archives. The Amistad ship uprising "set off an intense legal, political, and popular debate over the slave trade, slavery, race, Africa, and ultimately America itself." The Museum is located in Mystic, Connecticut. [KF]

National Archives of England - The Black Presence: Asian and Black History in Britain, 1500-1850
"People of African and Asian origin have lived in Britain for at least two thousand years. But this aspect of our heritage has been largely forgotten." "The word 'Black' is used here to denote people of African descent; 'Asian' to describe people of South Asian origin (from modern India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, the area that formed the British territory of India);..." History, paintings, photographs, bibliographies. Black Romans, Atlantic Slave Trade, Africa and the Caribbean, India. Music, Theatre, Literature. Historical tour of London, Bristol, Liverpool.

National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, United Kingdom
The Slave Trade.
History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade.
Transatlatnic Slave Trade and Abolition
Photographs, images.

National Museums Liverpool. Transatlantic Slave Trade

New York Historical Society - Slavery in New York
Exhibit opens October 7, 2005

New York Public Library, Schomburg Center - Lest We Forget: The Triumph Over Slavery
In English, French, Spanish, Portuguese. Online exhibit on the transatlantic slave trade. On the occasion of 2004 the International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition. Includes photographs, art work. Curated by Howard Dodson of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

Nunn, Nathan - Slavery, Institutional Development, and Long-Run Growth in Africa, 1400-2000
Pub. October 4, 2004. 50 pages, in pdf. "Can Africa's current state of under-development be partially attributed to the large trade in slaves that occurred during the........ slave trades?" "........I combine shipping data with historical records that report slave ethnicities and construct measures of the number of slaves exported from each country in Africa between 1400 and 1913. I find the number of slaves exported from a country to be an important determinant of economic performance in the second half of the 20th century." Nunn is a Ph.D. candidate, Department of Economics and Institute for Policy Analysis, University of Toronto.

Ohio University. Libraries. History of the Atlantic Slave Trade
A LibGuide with major reference works, primary sources, how to evaluate sources. Striking graphics. By Jeffrey Shane, Southeast Asia Reference Librarian, Alden Library, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.

Oxford Bibliographies: African Studies
Requires a subscription.
Has annotated reading lists on 

  • Slavery in Africa
  • E.S.D. Fomin
  • Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Herbert S. Klein
  • Slavery and Empire
  • Christian Pinnen
  • Women and Slavery
  • Claire C. Robertson
  • Atlantic History - The Origins of Slavery
  • Michael Guasco
  • Slavery
  • Silvia Scarpa
  • Literature, Slavery, and Colonization
  • Madeleine Dobie
  • Victorian Literature- Slavery and Antislavery
  • Katie McGettigan
  • Portuguese Atlantic World
  • John M. Monteiro, Susanne Lachenicht 

Ponta de Lança: Revista Eletrônica de História, Memória & Cultura
In Portuguese. E history journal. Has articles on the slave trade. Published by Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de História e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em História. Based in Sergipe, Brazil.

Qatar Digital Library (Qatar Foundation, the Qatar National Library, and the British Library)
In English and Arabic. "archives, maps, manuscripts, sound recordings, photographs and much more,...with contextualised explanatory notes and links" Has India Office Records 1763–1951.

Topics include slavery, the slave trade, ZanzibarMombasa (also spelled mombassa), East Africa
Articles by experts such as on the India Office Private Papers, Mombasa: Britain’s Shortest-Lived Protectorate?, Between Freedom and Slavery: The Employment of Runaway Slaves in the Indian Navy, The Arabic Manuscripts Collection in the British Library. [KF]

Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture - "In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience"
African-American migration over the past 400 years, including the The Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1450s-1867. Essays, historical photographs, maps, lesson plans, and documents.

  • OVERVIEW with an essay, "International Slave Trade: Causes and Consequences" by Paul E. Lovejoy, (York University), with statistics on slave exports from Africa, Regional Origins of Enslaved Africans Destined for the Americas, Proportion of Children and Females among the Enslaved Africans Crossing the Atlantic, Mortality among the Enslaved Population of the Middle Passage, Origins of Enslaved Africans Shipped to North America.
  • "Ethnicity in the Modern Atlantic World" from The Rise of African Slavery In The Americas, by David Eltis
  • Biography of Mahommah G. Baquaqua, a Native of Zoogoo by Baquaqua, Mahommah Gardo and Moore, Samuel, fl. 1854.

Shick, Tom W., Roll of the Emigrants to the Colony of Liberia Sent by the American Colonization Society from 1820-1843
The raw data and documentation which records all emigrants to Liberia between 1820-1843, brought by the American Colonization Society can be downloaded. The data set includes place of origin/arrival, status of individual, occupation, name of the ship which carried the emigrant, etc. Bundled with this is the data set, Liberian Census Data, 1843. The late,Tom Shick, Dept. of Afro-American Studies, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, was Principal Investigator of this project.

Slave Biographies: The Atlantic Database Network
The identities of enslaved people in the Atlantic World, their names, ethnicities, skills, occupations, and illnesses. Has three data sets: one about slaves in Maranhão, Brazil, one about slaves in colonial Louisiana, and another about freed slaves in Antebellum Louisiana. Has a Directory of online datasets. Originated with the databases of Gwendolyn Midlo Hall and Walter Hawthorne.

Slave Movement During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
Contains raw data and documentation. Includes:

  • Curtin, Philip D. and Herbert S. Klein. Records of Slave Ship Movement Between Africa and the Americas, 1817-1843
  • Curtin, Philip D. Slave Ships of Eighteenth Century France, 1748-1756, 1763-1792
  • Klein, Herbert S. Slave Trade to Rio de Janeiro, 1795-1811
  • Klein, Herbert S. Virginia Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century, 1727-1769
  • Klein, Herbert S. English Slave Trade, 1791-1799 (House of Lords Survey)
  • Klein, Herbert S. Angola Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century, 1723-1771
  • Klein, Herbert S. Slave Trade to Rio de Janeiro, 1825-1830
  • Klein, Herbert S. Internal Slave Trade to Rio de Janeiro, 1852
  • Klein, Herbert S. Slave Trade to Havana, Cuba, 1790-1820
  • Klein, Herbert S. Nantes Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century, 1711-1791
  • Engerman, Stanley L. and Herbert S. Klein. Slave Trade to Jamaica, 1782-1788, 1805-1808
  • Distributed by Data and Program Library Service University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Slave Registers [Angola]
Slave registers in Luanda, Angola and in the districts of the interior, with names, sexes, places of origin, ages, body marks, and occupations of captives, as well as the names and the places of residence of slave owners.  "this data most likely accurately indicates the range of uses of slave labor in Luanda and the immediate interior following 1850,"  "the slave trade transformed slavery from a marginal institution into a central element of African societies. In fact, after the prohibition of slave exports in the nineteenth century, the use of captives in productive activities intensified within Africa." The Project Director is Vanessa S. Oliveira.  The site results from Dr. Oliveira's project “A Social History of Slavery in Luanda, 1854-1873."  [KF]

Slave Societies Digital Archive
In Portuguese, some English. 17th, 18th, 19th century archival materials documenting the history of Africans and their descendants in the Atlantic World.  Catholic Church baptismal records from Brazil, Ouidah (now in Benin). For Ouidah, baptismal handwritten records, in Portuguese, cover 1866-1884. Records from Luanda (Angola) have not been authorized for web publication but can be consulted at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. The Luanda collection covers late 18th and early 19th century baptismal records. Directed by Jane Landers.    Based at Vanderbilt University. [KF]

Slave Trade, Slavery Abolitions and Their Legacies in European Histories and Identities

WP1 - Frontiers, nationalism, feelings of belonging

WP2 - Atlantic Slave Trades, Trade Connection and Forced Labour

WP3 - Law, regulations, practices and social connections

WP4 - Constructing Otherness: Circulation and Identity in Europe

WP5 - Slavery and slaves in continental Europe

WP6 - Interaction between research and education

WP7 - Dissemination and transfer of knowledge


Slave Voyages
Trans-Atlantic and Intra-American slave trade databases. Timeline and chronology, maps. African Names database.  Types of African resistance, vessel names, captain's names, starting & ending ports, "place of purchase",  lesson plans for grades 6-12. Site creators include Emory University, University of California - Irvine, University of Califorrnia - Santa Cruz, Harvard University.

Slavery, abolition and social justice, 1490-2007
Open to licensed users. Primary source documents, maps, essays, tutorials, images, a chronology and bibliography. Produced by Adam Matthew Publications.

Slavery and Abolition (Abingdon, U.K.)
Journal. Table of contents online; full text access requires a subscription which some universities have. Has an annual bibliography on slavery. "journal devoted in its entirety to a discussion of the demographic, socio-economic, historical and psychological aspects of human bondage from the ancient period to the present. It is also concerned with the dismantling of the slave systems and with the legacy of slavery." Published by Taylor & Francis, U. K.

Slavery & anti-slavery [electronic resource] : a transnational archive
Open to licensed users.  Books, serials, manuscript collections, supreme court records, articles, websites, biographies, chronology, bibliographies. Produced by Gale,Cengage Learning.

Slavery and Manumission Manuscripts of Timbuktu
"From the Bibliothèque Commémorative Mama Haidara in Timbuktu, Mali, a collection of 19th century manuscripts relating to slavery and manumission in Timbuktu. The materials, in Arabic script , provide documentation on Africans in slavery in Muslim societies." Browse the 206 mss. by subject. Project of the Center for Research Libraries, the Cooperative Africana Microform Project, CAMP, and Northwestern University. CRL Catalog Record. [KF]

Slavery and the Making of America
PBS television series (first aired Feb. 9, 2005). "four-part series documenting the history of American slavery from its beginnings in the British colonies to its end in the Southern states and the years of post-Civil War Reconstruction." "Episode one opens in the 1620s with the introduction of 11 men of African descent and mixed ethnicity into slavery in New Amsterdam." Chronology, resources for teachers, annotated book list for students, virtual museums prepared by four groups of students, on-line resources. See also a review of the TV series by David W. Blight, "America: Made and Unmade by Slavery" in The Chronicle Review, Feb. 4, 2005. [KF]

Slavery @ the Cape of Good Hope in both Dutch and British South Africa
Contents include (from book sources) the Cape slave code of 1754, social conditions of slaves at the Cape, a timeline of slavery at the Cape, an extensive bibliography, scholars of slave history, etc. Hosted on the Dutch East India Company website of the University of Ghent (Belgium).Site by Mogamat G Kamedien. [KF]

Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora
Over 1,200 images. Portraits of individuals, maps, capture of slaves, pre-colonial Africa, European forts / trading posts in Africa, slave ships, slave auctions, etc.  Site maintained by Professor Jerome S. Handler. [KF]

Societies After Slavery: A Select Annotated Bibliography of Printed Sources on Cuba, Brazil, British Colonial Africa, South Africa, and the British West Indies
Edited by Rebecca J. Scott, Thomas C. Holt, Frederick Cooper, and Aims McGuinness. Originally published as a print book - Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, c2002. Full text. Covers British Colonial Africa and South Africa. Each section has an essay and annotated entries. Compilers include Fred Cooper, Pamela Scully, etc. "the definitive resource for scholars and students engaged in research on postemancipation societies in the Americas and Africa." Part of the Univ. of Pittsburg Digital Library.

South African History Online - History of slavery and early colonisation in South Africa
Timeline. Many essays.  "South African History Online (SAHO) was established in 2000, as a not for profit Section 21 organisation, to address the biased way in which South Africa’s history.."  Founded by Omar Badsha.

Spartacus Internet Encyclopedia - British History 1700-1930: The Slave Trade
Includes passages from primary sources, illustrations. Accounts of Olaudah Equiano, Olaudah Equiano, Zamba Zembola, and others. Covers the slave system, life, Amistad, anti-slavery legislation, anti-slavery organizations, etc.  From Spartacus Educational and Schoolnet (a U.K. company providing internet service to schools).

[Speedy] Sarah Speedy: Daughter of Colonel Squire, Wife of Major Speedy ~ Recollections 1818 to 1859
Edited by Allan Lawrence Tristram Speedy. Full text account. 33 p. Sarah Speedy relates her travels in India, Mauritius, South Africa from 1818-1859, meeting with Robert Moffat, the missionary, helping Colonel Graham mark out Grahamstown, brief comments on slaves and other events. Allan Speedy, the great great grandson of Sarah Speedy, lives in New Zealand. [KF]

Stanford University. Senegal Liberations Project
Faculty: Joel Cabrita (History); Richard Roberts (History); Rebecca Wall; and Fatoumata Seck (French and Italian)
"Between 1857 and 1903, 28,930 enslaved Africans walked away from their African masters and sought freedom and freedom papers from French colonial officials in Senegal. Who they were, where they came from, and how they made their way to freedom are central questions we are asking."

Répertoire 1857-1904 [microform] : [libérations].
[Dakar] : Atelier de microfilm, Direction des archives du Sénégal, Annexe, 2002.
Database and 7 microfilm reels.
"Slave emancipation registries from the colonial administration of Senegal. The first entry was recorded on August 6, 1857, and the last was May 16, 1904. In all, there were 20 record books for slave liberations. While the format changed over the years, the general system used by the colonial government was the following: name of slave, place of birth (if available), age, place of liberation within the colony of Senegal, date of liberation, and name of the colonial administrator."

Stanford University, The Slave Trade
A selection of microform sources and print sources for studying the slave trade. In Stanford and outside Stanford. Notes for a two-week seminar.

Studies in the World History of Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation
Ceased publication. The Internet Archive has limited content. E-journal edited by Patrick Manning, John Saillant and Anthony Henderson-Whyte. Essays, documents, images, bibliographies and database information relevant to the history of slavery, abolition, and emancipation. Vol. 1, No. 1 is August 1996.*/

This Far by Faith: African-American Spiritual Journeys
Site for the TV program. Site does not work in some older browsers. Includes a profile of Olaudah Equiano, an essay on Religion in Africa, and a timeline beginning with 1526: the first North American slave revolt. Estimated Number of Africans Exported By Region, Estimated Number of Africans, Imported to the Americas,1451-1870. "a co-production of Blackside Inc. and The Faith Project, Inc. in association with the Independent Television Service. [KF]

UNESCO. Slave Route Project

United Kingdom. National Archives
Classroom resources on:
Abolition of Slavery
Slavery. How did the Abolition acts of 1807 and 1833 affect slavery?
Transatlantic Teachers Resources 2011


UK. parliamentary papers

[Cambridge, U.K.] : Chadwyck-Healey  License required for access. Has the full text of   -

Command papers, 1802-1910, Hansard, 1803-2005

Debates, 1774-1805, Histories and proceedings, 1660-1743.

House of Commons Papers, 1715-2010, Bills and acts, 1695-2015

Public petitions, 1833-1918, House of Lords Papers , 1714-1910, Journals, 1688-1834

Includes House of Commons sessional papers from 1715 to the present, with supplementary material back to 1688. I     

Has some African annual Colonial Reports.

Guide on using the database -


United States, Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, 19th Century maps of Liberia
"...includes twenty examples from the American Colonization Society (ACS), organized in 1817 to resettle free black Americans in West Africa. These maps show early settlements in Liberia, indigenous political subdivisions, and some of the building lots that were assigned to settlers. This on-line presentation also includes other nineteenth-century maps of Liberia: a map prepared for a book first published in the 1820's by ACS agent Jehudi Ashmun, a map showing the areas in Liberia that were ceded to the society by indigenous chiefs, and a detailed map dated 1869 by a man thought to be the black American explorer Benjamin Anderson."  Has a History of Liberia Timeline.  [KF]

United States. Library of Congress. Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860
"Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860, contains just over a hundred pamphlets and books (published between 1772 and 1889) concerning the difficult and troubling experiences of African and African-American slaves in the American colonies and the United States." "trials and cases, reports, arguments, accounts, examinations of cases and decisions, proceedings, journals, a letter, and other works.....Of the cases presented here, most took place in America and a few in Great Britain."

University of Virginia. Liberian Letters
The Univ. of Virginia, Electronic Text Center, provides the full text of two collections of letters written by former slaves from Virginia who settled in Liberia: Samson Ceasar's letters to David S. Haselden and Henry F. Westfall, 1834-1835, and Letters from the former slaves of Terrell, 1857-1866. The letters are held by University of Virginia Library Special Collections. [KF]

Vink, Marcus - "The World's Oldest Trade": Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century"
Article in Journal of World History, Vol. 14, No. 2, June 2003. "discusses various aspects of slavery and the slave trade of the Dutch East India Company in the Indian Ocean world: the markets of supply and demand or geographic origins and destinations of slaves; the routes to slavery or the diverse means of recruitment of forced labor; the miscellaneous occupations performed by company and private slaves; the size of Dutch slavery....."

Virginia Emigrants to Liberia
"Between 1820 and 1865 more than 3700 African Americans from Virginia emigrated to Liberia." "In 1847, they helped establish the first African republic." Database of nearly 3700 Virginia emigrants to Liberia and nearly 250 Virginia emancipators, "a timeline of relevant events and documents between 1787 and 1866,.." Material from Marie Tyler-McGraw's research for her book on Virginia's role in the African colonization movement.

Voyage of the Slave Ship Sally
"In 1764, a.... brigantine called the Sally embarked from Providence, Rhode Island, to West Africa on a slaving voyage. The ship was owned by Nicholas Brown and Company, a Providence merchant firm run by four brothers – Nicholas, John, Joseph, and Moses Brown." The four Brown brothers were deeply involved in the founding of what later became Brown University. The web site is a "project developed by the Brown University Scholarly Technology Group, ....the Center for Digital Initiatives, the John Carter Brown Library, and Professor James Campbell" [now of Stanford University]. Maintained by Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice, Providence, Rhode Island.

Wilberforce, William
"British politician and philanthropist who from 1787 was prominent in the struggle to abolish the slave trade and then to abolish slavery itself in British overseas possessions." - Encyclopedia Britannica.

  • Open University - Wilberforce. Online course on William Wilberforce Includes primary source documents. The Open University is a U.K. distance education  institution established in the 1960s, incorporated by Royal Charter, an exempt charity in England & Wales
  • Amazing Grace in Wikipedia -  Movie about Wilberforce. Opened Feb. 2007. Senegalese music star, Youssou N'Dour, is Olaudah Equiano in the movie.

World Digital Library - Travels into the Inland Parts of Africa: Containing a Description of the Several Nations for the Space of Six Hundred Miles up the River Gambia.
A 1730s journal of Francis Moore of the  the Royal African Company, concerns pre-colonial Gambia and the slave trade. Maintained by the U.S. Library of Congress.

Yale Slavery and Abolition Portal
From the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition and the Instructional Technology Group, Yale University. Primary source documents "related to slavery, abolition, and resistance within ...  [Yale University's] libraries and galleries"

Yale University. Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition
The "Center seeks to promote a better understanding of all aspects of the Atlantic Slave System, including the Africans' resistance to enslavement, the black and white abolitionist movements, and of the ways in which slavery finally came to an end." Has a Lesson Plan with narrative, timeline, documents on the Amistad Case. Has the introduction and bibliography to"Abolitionists Abroad: American Blacks and the Making of Modern West Africa" by Lamin Sanneh. See entry under Sanneh.

York University. Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on Africa and Its Diasporas
Has Slavery Old and New. Based at York University, Toronto, Canada.