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Media & mass communication

See also: News | Radio

Articles for journalists such as AFRICAN JOURNALISTS SEE GREAT VALUE IN TRAINING, ESPECIALLY WHEN IT’S DELIVERED ONLINE and, by Salem Solomon,  "Examining the Roots of Biased Reporting in Africa."  Journalism training information.

African Elections Project
Project to develop the capacity of the media through ICT for the elections in Ghana, Cote d'lvoire, Guinea, and Malawi (2009) from 2008 to 2016. News, blogs, videos, photographs. The Project partners with the Open Society Initiative for West Africa.and is co-ordinated by Penplusbytes, based in Accra, Ghana.

African Journalism Studies (Stellenbosch and Madison, WI)
Formerly Ecquid Novi. African media studies and journalism. Published by the University of Wisconsin Press in cooperation with the Institute for Media Analysis in South Africa (iMasa) and the Department of Journalism, Stellenbosch University. Subscription required.

African Media Initiative
Has many media-related reports including reports of the former African Media Development Initiative (surveys of the state of the media in African countries). Based in Nairobi, Kenya.

African Press Organization - APO Source
In English and French. Database of press releases related to Africa. Includes the situation of journalists, the media, press freedom; relations with the US;relations with France;relations with China; the European Union; etc. Has a mailing list and a RSS feed. Organizes press videoconferences. Has a mailing list on companies in Africa. Based in Lausanne, Switzerland.

African Women's Media Center (Dakar, Senegal)
Site closed but the Wayback Machine has archived some pages. The Center's goal is to provide "African women journalists the training, resources and tools they need to compete equally with their male colleagues." The Center is a project of the International Women's Media Foundation (IWMF). Their Resource Directory provides a directory of African women's media associations, national & regional media associations, press freedom resources, fellowship sources, etc. Their Courage in Journalism award honors notable African women journalists; past winners are described. Has full text articles from their quarterly, On the Wire, and a leadership handbook.

AISI Media Awards
Site has closed. The Internet Archive has archived older pages. The awards are "aimed at individual journalists and media institutions that are promoting journalism that promotes a better understanding of the information society in Africa." Award categories are radio, print, TV and other (Broadcaster of the Year, Promoting African Languages in the Information Society, Media Personality Award (sustained analysis in the news media), Media and ICT application, and the African Diaspora Media). Sponsored by the U.N. Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa (OSISA).     htm*/

Article 19, the International Centre Against Censorship (London)
"an international human rights organization which promotes freedom of expression and fights censorship all over the world. We take our name from Article 19 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights."  Does extensive work on African media freedom issues. Publications include Zanzibar Democracy. On Shaky Foundations, April 2000. [KF]

Campbell, W. Joseph - "Beyond the Litany of Limitations: Contexts for the Emergence of Independent Journalism in Sub-Saharan Africa"
Full text of the first chaper of the book, "The Emergent Independent Press in Benin and Cote d'Ivoire: From Voice of the State to Advocate of Democracy" (Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 1998) Concerns the Ivoirien newspaper, La Voie and other papers. [KF]

Cardoso, Carlos
Investigative journalist,founder of MediaFax and Metical, was assassinated Nov. 22, 2000.
Committee to Protect Journalists article -
Guardian article -  Carlos Cardoso His tenacious journalism exposed corruption in Mozambique
Reporters Without Borders - Three years after Carlos Cardoso’s murder, the identity of all those involved is still unknown, November 2003
Requires subscription - Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 27, No. 86, Special Issue on AIDS (Dec., 2000), pp. 597-600 (4 pages)  The Murder of Carlos Cardoso: Report & Obituary
Carlos Cardoso Memorial Lecture 2019

CNN African Journalist of the Year
Articles lists other award category winners. "Peter Murimi, working for Camerapix, Kenya, has been awarded the top prize" [for 2004]

Committee to Protect Journalists
Based in New York city, a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization which does not accept govt. funding. Has for Africa, extensive news, country reports, feature articles, and a database of attacks on the press in Africa and elsewhere. Press Freedom Awards.

Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) - On Assignment: Covering Conflicts Safely
Handbook for journalists working in conflict areas of the world. "topics ranging from training and insurance to body armor and the rules of war."

Committee to Protect Journalists - Attacks on the Press 2000 - Africa
Overview plus individual country reports for Africa.

Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) - Twilight of a Despot: A Documented Record of the Assault on Press Freedom in Zimbabwe, 1999 to the Present
Based in New York city, the CPJ is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization which does not accept govt. funding. See also "Not Again" by Zimbabwean journalist Lloyd Mudiwa on his experience in jail.

Democratisation et Rivalites Ethniques au Cameroun
Full text book. Chapters include: ETHNIES, MEDIAS ET PROCESSUS DEMOCRATIQUE AU CAMEROUN: Analyse de contenu de quelques journaux by Ferdinand Chindji-Kouleu. 

Entre tradition orale et nouvelles technologies: ou vont les mass médias au Sénégal? - Martin Taureg & Frank Wittmann, Editors.
In French. Full text. Pub. 2004. 172 p. In pdf. (Arbeitspapiere (Working Paper, No. 47) of the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institut für Ethnologie und Afrika-Studien). On Senegal's newspapers, also mention of Senegalese radio, television and the internet. Includes Baba Thiam: Joko ­ L¹histoire d¹un échec [internet project of Youssou Ndour]. [KF] Some section topics:
Mamadou Sy: La presse sénégalaise, trois ans après l¹avènement de
l¹alternance politique
Yacine Diouf: Des journalistes ­ des corrompus ?
Khoudia Diop: La presse populaire: son contenu et ses lecteurs au Sénégal
Alassane Gueye: Le secteur informel à la périphérie de la presse
Mamadou Clédor Diouf: Environnement juridique des radios communautaires
Alpha Sall: Conditions de travail des mass média et qualité
Baba Thiam: Joko ­ L¹histoire d¹un échec [internet project of Youssou Ndour]

FAIR, Forum for African Investigative Reporters
"a professional association of investigative journalists in Africa" Established 2003. Database of journalists by country, subject expertise. Has ethics, media law, photo, data, cross exam guides. Grants for African investigative journalists. Based in Johannesburg, South Africa.

File Room Censorship
Small number of older censorship cases re Africa from the 1970s to early 1990s.

Freedom  Forum
"A nonpartisan, international foundation dedicated to free press, free speech" Emphasis on the United States. Based in Washington D. C.

Freedom House
Full text reports - Freedom on the Net. Freedom in the World annual reports. Freedom of the Press annual reports. Constitution Making in Southern Africa covers Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Based in Washington, D.C.

Freedom of Expression Institute, FXI (Johannesburg)
Issues Action Alerts and Press Releases, describes their campaigns. FXI was formed in 1994 from a merger of the Campaign for Open Media (COM) and the Anti-Censorship Action Group (ACAG). Has the full text of the book, Between Speech and Silence: Hate Speech, Pornography and the new South Africa, edited by Jane Duncan (Braamfontein : Freedom of Expression Institute ; Rondebosch : Institute for Democracy in South Africa, c1996. 241 p.) [KF]

Gender Links
"primary area of focus is the transformation of gender relations in and through the media." Full text reorts and manuals such as Gender and Photojournalism in Southern Africa: a manual for trainers. Based in Johannesburg, South Africa. [KF]
Other full text reports:
Gender and HIV: A Training Manual for Southern African Media and Communicators.
Sixteen Days of Peace 2002. (on gender violence in South Africa)
Whose News, Whose Views: A Gender and Media Handbook for Southern Africa Media.

Ghana. ICT Policy and Plan Development Committee
The National Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy and Plan Development Committee was "set up ... to develop for Ghana an ICT-led Socio-economic Development Policy...." Reports include Media Policy for Ghana - Ghana Media Commission. 48 p. in Adobe pdf. Chaired by Professor Clement Dzidonu. Under the auspices of UNECA and AISI.

Global Coalition for Africa - Media Issues
The Coaltion is "a North-South forum dedicated to forging policy consensus on development priorities among African governments, their northern partners, and non-governmental groups working in and on Africa." Meetings concern the media, etc. Based in Washington, D.C. Conference documents - African Media in Transition: Democratization and Digital Divide (2001), and Workshop on the Role of the Media in Africa's Transition (1999). [KF] htm

Global Health Reporting
Current news on HIV / AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, statistics, African country reports (Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia). Site aimed at journalists (journalist fellowship information, disease tutorials, glossaries). From the Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, California. [KF]

Highway Africa 2002. Wiring Journalism for Development
A Johannesburg August 2002 conference. Has summaries of papers presented. Issued a "Charter on African media and the Digital Divide."

Highway Africa 2001
"An annual continent-wide conference looking at all aspects of the media in Africa and the Internet." Co-hosts are the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) and the New Media Lab, Rhodes University's Department of Journalism and Media Studies. and
Past Highway Africa conferences:
1998 -
1999 -
2000 -

Huri-laws, The Human Rights Law Service (Lagos)
"...specialist provider of human rights and public interest law services in Nigeria. An independent, non-profit service, HURILAWS advances human rights in Nigeria " Works thru legislative advocacy and legal assistance. Includes the Huri-laws Newsletter, news and legal actions regarding Nigerian journalists and human rights victims. Covers some general African human rights events.

IFEX, International Freedom of Expression Exchange Clearing House
Issues Action Alerts, tracks threats to freedom of the press, radio. Use the keyword search by country to retrieve current reports about African journalists and newspapers, and media related civil liberties issues. Has past alerts from 1995 to date.

Index on Censorship
Site for the print magazine. Limited online information. See the Index Index. IFEX and the Committee to Protect Journalists are more extensive.

Institut Panos Afrique de l'Ouest (Dakar, Senegal)
Has a directory of press agencies, journalism links, directory of African newpapers and magazines, the full text, in MS Word, of laws and regulations affecting the media in Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, S?n?gal, Togo and Chad, news (on internet developments by African newspapers, new journals, radio developments, media appointments, obituaries), on radio pluralism, links to African newspapers. [KF]

International Centre for Investigative Reporting
Independent non profit. Full text reports on all aspects of Nigerian society. Tips and resources for journalists. The 2019 Nigerian Election. Photos, Videos. Information on fellowships open to journalists.

International Federation of Journalists - Africa Bureau
In French, English, and Portuguese. Directory, by country of press unions/ journalists' associations, news regarding journalists, newspapers (detailed information lacking). Based in Dakar, Senegal. [KF]

International Journalists' Network (Washington, D.C.)
Has a database of full text media laws by country, directory of media outlets by country, press overview / state of the media by country, country facts, country codes of ethics, fellowships / awards, journalism news, and training events by country. Produced by the International Center for Journalists (ICFJ), Washington, D.C. [KF]

International Press Institute
A "global network of journalists, editors and media executives, dedicated to freedom of the press and improving the standards and practises of journalism." Its annual World Press Freedom Review documents press freedom violations. Has reports on all African countries though these are for one to two years old. Its IPI Reports are more recent as are its Press Freedom News reports. IPI sponsored a 1999 Ethiopian Media in Development conference. Its 1999 World Congress has speeches by Pius NJAWE, Publisher, Le Messager, Douala, Cameroon, Sam MBURE, Programme Director, Network for the Defence of Independent Media in Africa (NDIMA), Kabral BLAY-AMIHERE, President, West African Journalists Association (WAJA), Accra, West Africa. The IPI annual Death Watch records journalists killed. The Ethiopian Free Press Journalists' Association (EFJA) was awarded the 1999 IPI's annual Free Media Pioneer Award. [KF]

International Women’s Media Foundation - Maisha Yetu Project
Project to assist African newspapers and radio in reporting on HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. Deadline for Health: The Media's Response to Covering HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria in Africa. Pub. 2004 by the International Women’s Media Foundation (Washington D.C.) and the African Women’s Media Center (Dakar, Senegal). 36 p. in PDF. And the followup study: Writing for Our Lives: How the Maisha Yetu project Changed Health Coverage in Africa. Pub. 2006. 124 pages in PDF. [KF]

"an international non-profit organization that supports open media worldwide." Has an Africa section. Sponsors the Media Map Project which has datasets. Its Southern Africa Telecommunications Policy and Regulatory Support Project works to " to harmonize a common framework of telecommunications policies, regulations and procedures. "Local Voices” trains radio journalists, disc jockeys and talk show hosts to improve their coverage of HIV/AIDS,..." It covers the War Crimes Tribunal proceedings in Arusha, Tanzania. Their Newsletter is online. Offices in Arcata, California and New York city. [KF]

Journal of African Media Studies, JAMS (Bristol, UK)
Published by Intellect Ltd, Bristol, U.K. Interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed journal on the African media, culture and society. Covers broadcasting, the press, internet, and new media. One free issue is online.

Journalist en Danger
In French and English. "une organisation indépendante et non partisane créé à Kinshasa à l'initiative d'un groupe de journalistes congolais (RDC) et dédiée à la défense et à la promotion de la liberté de la presse d'abord en RDC et depuis, mai 2003, dans huit autres pays de l'Afrique centrale couverts par l'OMAC (Organisation des Médias d'Afrique Centrale dont le siège est à Bujumbura, capitale du Burundi." News on violations against press freedom, reports and documents (such as L'Etat de la liberté de presse en Afrique Centrale - 62 p. in PDF, Plaidoyer pour la dépénalisation des délits de presse en RD Congo, 2004, 43 p. in PDF ), lobbies for journalists' rights, issues of their newsletter, Plume & Liberté. Based in Kinshasa, Dem. Rep. of the Congo. [KF]

Journalists for Human Rights, JHR / Journalistes Pour les Droits Humains, JDH
In English and French. "focuses on improving human rights reporting in [West African] countries that already have a relative degree of freedom of expression." Full text report - Election Reporting in Sierra Leone (2007 Presidential and Parliamentary elections and 2008’s local council elections). Based in Toronto, Canada. [KF]

Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung. Media Programme. Sub-Sahara Africa
Programs to support journalists in the independent media, promoting democracy, economic growth, pluralism and human rights. Based in Johannesburg, South Africa. [KF] Extensive full text books:
A Watchdog's Guide to Investigative Reporting. 2005. 268 pages in PDF (includes Case of Tony Yengeni, Anton Lubowski, useful web sites)
Politics and the Media in Southern Africa. 1999. 122 p. in PDF.
SADC Media Law: A Handbook for Media Practitioners. Vol. 1. A comparative overview of the laws and practice in Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. 2003. 156 p. in PDF. Vol. 2. A comparative overview of media laws and practice in Botswana, Swaziland and Zambia. 2004. 125 p. in PDF. Vol. 3. A comparative overview of media laws and practice in Lesotho, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of Congo. 2005. 158 p. in PDF.

Leslie, Michael
Dr. Leslie is Associate Professor, College of Journalism and Communications, University of Florida, Gainesville. Has the syllabi for his course on International Communication.

Liberia Institute of Journalism
Produces the West Africa Newsletter, which reports on Human Rights, Democracy & Development. The e-mail newsletter has news summaries with links to the original sources. Based in Monrovia, Liberia. [KF]

[Liberia] Press Union of Liberia
"The Press Union of Liberia (PUL) was founded to clamor for press freedom, democracy, social justice and peace." "The Union is the only umbrella organization of Liberian journalists."

Mail & Guardian - Media Online
Site by the Johannesburg, South Africa print newspaper.

Maison de la presse du Mali
In French. Articles from Mali newspapers, a directory of Mali newspapers, a directory of media associations in Mali, Mali radio stations, regulatory bodies, cybercafes, etc. Site created by Maison de la Presse in Bamako with the assistance of l'Institut Panos Afrique de l'Ouest. [KF]

La Maison des Médias du Bénin
In French. Site from the Union des professionnels des médias du Bénin, UPMB, the Conseil national du patronat de la presse et de l’audiovisuel, (CNPA-Bénin) and other organizations. Directories of Benin newspapers, radio & television stations, media professionals, journalism associations. Based in Cotonou, Benin.

Media Africa (Nairobi)
"a locally owned Kenyan company dealing with media monitoring and subsidiary services." Its subscription service, E-Clips Website, enables subscribers to view print stories, TV clips & Radio clips about an individual, company or industry "from anywhere on the globe!" Their MediaMAP service supplies stories from mainstream media houses (TV, Radio & Print) on a monthly CD-ROM. Offers courses (for sound engineers, video editors, producers, etc.). P.O. Box 40472, Nairobi. Tel. 570621, 577486

Media in the Global South (Durban, South Africa)
"on-line journal dedicated to increasing the flow of media studies information, research and ideas between Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean and Asia, as well as between the global South and North." Hosted at the website of the Graduate Programme in Cultural and Media Studies (CMS), University of Natal Durban.

Media Institute of Southern Africa, MISA
News of press freedom violations in Southern Africa, links to member radio and TV web sites, action alerts, directories of Southern African newspapers, (a short list of some SADC newspapers, and Southern African radio stations, MISA chapters, lists of their publications, training for media practitioners. MISA, based in Windhoek, Namibia, is an NGO with members in 11 of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) countries. Based in Windhoek Namibia. [KF]

Media Monitoring Project Zimbabwe (Harare)
Produces Weekly Media Reviews. Monitors Zimbabwe's print media, television, and radio. Carries statements on Farm invasions, the Fuel Crisis, Floods and Elections.

Media Rights Agenda
" independent, non-governmental organisation established for the purpose of promoting and protecting press freedom and freedom of expression in Nigeria." Published Media Rights Monitor, "monthly newsletter that tracks media law, reportorial bias, attacks on journalists...". Full text reports online. Directory of members of the Freedom of Information Coalition. Based in Lagos. Site hosted by Internews Network. [KF]

Media Web
"an independent group of journalists who provide information by e-mail and via the Internet to over 4500 South African journalists...and...content to dozens of Internet sites..." Submit press releases for a price. Members has access to media job openings.

Médias Bénin
In French. Site about Benin's presse and media. Directories of print and online news sources. Radio stations. Based in Cotonou, Benin. From Association Globenet, Paris, France. [KF]

National Institute of Journalists of Uganda (Kampala, Uganda)
Has a directory of journalists, publishes the Uganda Journalism Review; has a selection of full text articles on the media and journalism in Uganda. [KF]

National Union of Somali Journalists
"a non-profit and nongovernmental organization, registered as a trade union, which is an umbrella body for all Somali journalists." Alerts regarding press, radio, TV freedom. Video reports. Based in Mogadishu, Somalia. Has online its 2008 Annual Report, SOMALIA: A Precarious and Perilous Place for the Press. 12 p. in PDF.

Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa. (NIZA) Media and Freedom of Expression in Southern Africa
Articles on the role of hiphop (as a carrier of social messages) in Tanzania and South Africa (with audio files), full text articles from "Freedom is a bomb, that explodes in your head. Mission Report on Freedom of Expression in Southern Africa" (1998), statement on the murder of journalist, Carlos Cardoso, etc.

Network for the Defence of Independent Media in Africa (NDIMA)
Pan-African NGO which promotes freedom of expression. Founded 1993. Their Alerts report on attacks on the African press. Operation READom makes banned works by African writers available. Has reports on the Kenya black theatre, vernacular languages in Kenya, ethnic cleansing in Kenya, Ethiopian journalists, etc. Based in Nairobi, Kenya.

New Narratives - Women Reporting Africa
Liberian women journalist training program, "works with Liberia's best reporters at the biggest media houses" Reports on political, human rights issues in Liberia, Cote d'Ivoire, etc.

[Nigeria] National Broadcasting Commission Nigeria (Abuja)
How to apply for a broadcast license, officers, etc.

Nyamnjoh, Francis B.
Blog of Cameroonian scholar, Dr. Nyamnjoh, Associate Professor and Head of Publications, CODESRIA. Full text articles on diverse topics (the media, democracy, popular culture, etc.), photographs. Reviews of the author's books (Negotiating an Anglophone Identity: A Study of the Politics of Recognition and Representation in Cameroon, Africa's Media, Democracy and the Politics of Belonging). [KF]

[Olewe] Dickens Olewe 
Kenyan journalist, founder of AfricanSkyCAM (Africa's first drone journalism team). He was a Stanford Knight Fellow 2014/2015, was web site coordinator for the Star (Nairobi) newspaper. He works with a collaborative online Kenyan newspaper, Hivisasa.

Onadipe, Abiodun and David Lord - "Conciliation Resources - African Conflict and the Media"
On "the actual and potential role of the African media in responding to widespread conflict or the threat of violent conflict..." Includes a bibliography. Onadipe was a journalist for several years in Nigeria and has a doctorate degree in international relations from the University of Kent. Lord is Co-Director of Conciliation Resources. On the web site of Conciliation Resources (Lancaster House, London).

Pan African Media Research Organisation, PAMRO
Provides audience research data for African media. Powerpoint presentations from its annual conferences. LInks to related sites. Based in South Africa. [KF]

Panos Institute - Southern Africa
Based in Lusaka, Zambia.

Partenaires des M?dias Africains / African Media Partners Network (Paris)
In French and English. The Network, based in Paris, is composed of donor agencies (governments, foundations and international bodies). Has the latest news on the media (newspapers / radio) in Africa, a directory of African journalist associations, directory of press centres, full text media status reports (the media sector in the country, including the media landscape and its stakeholders, the legal framework, the role of donors and the sector's support needs) for Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Niger, Togo. For each country, has a "List of newspapers, completed with indicators on the importance of their audience (frequency, average circulation, number of staff...) and addresses," a list of radio broadcasters, and two maps.

Pen + Bytes. International Institute for Information and Communication Technologies Journalism
"Pen + Bytes is an international institute aimed at developing Information Communications Technology (ICT Journalism." [company established 2001] seeks to empower the media through the use of ICTs to advance the work of journalism......a network of media organizations and journalists interested in using ICTs effectively to advance journalism." Has a newsletter, Bantaba. Bibliography, related sites. The President is Kwami Ahiabenu, II. Based in Accra, Ghana. [KF]

Pontzeele, Sophie - Burundi 1972 / Rwanda 1994 : l' « efficacité » dramatique d'une reconstruction idéologique du passé par la presse.
In French. Th. doct. : Changement social : Lille 1 : 2004. Lille (France) : USTL, 2004. - 529 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille - Résumé. - Bibliogr. : p. 418-426. Full text of the doctoral thesis. 529 pages, in PDF.

presseafricaine ? Association de la Presse Panafricaine
In French. "L'association des journalistes africains de France. Au-delà des correspondant(e)s des médias du "Continent" travaillant dans l'Hexagone, notre association est ouverte aux confrères et consoeurs des Caraïbes." Discussion list; messages are on-line.

Presswise Trust
Provides "advice, information, research and training on media ethics." Has a directory of journalism schools and associations worldwide. Based in Bristol, U. K.

Radio for Peacebuilding, Africa
In English, French, Hausa, Swahili, Portuguese. Promotes the use of radio as a tool for building peace. Reports on the media (radio, TV, newspapers, cellphones, internet) environment in Angola, Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, DR Congo, Sierra Leone and Guinea. Discussion forums. Database of radio professionals. Audio radio programs for registered users. A project of Search for Common Ground. Based in Brussels, Belgium. [KF]
Reports such as:
SOMALIA - African Media Development Initiative. Research findings and conclusions, Jamal Abdi Ismail, BBC World Service Trust, 2006. 97 pages in PDF
SIERRA LEONE - African Media Development Initiative. Research findings and conclusions, David Tam-Baryoh, BBC World Service Trust, 2006. 89 p. in PDF
ANGOLA - The African Media Development Initiative. Research findings and conclusions, 2006, Cândido Mendes and Barnaby Smith, BBC World Service Trust, 2006. 67 p. in PDF

Rap 21 - African Press Network for the 21st Century
In English and French. "RAP 21 is an electronic network for the African press, serving as a platform for the exchange of information ideas, and a forum for discussion between newspaper executives and editors, journalists and other media practitioners spanning the continent." Launched by the World Association of Newspapers (WAN) for the independent media. Has letters protesting press freedom violations which can be signed online and issues of their Newsletter. Based in Paris, France. [KF]

Refugees, Asylum-seekers and the Mass Media Project
Has a Directory of Exiled Journalists. Locate African journalists by country, name, skill, language. Full text issues of the RAM Bulletin. Maintained by the PressWise Trust, Bristol, U.K.

Reporters Without Borders / Reporters sans frontières
In English, French, Spanish.

Rhodes University. Journalism & Media Studies Department. African Media Debates
"....reports on specific African countries [media profiles with historical background, compiled by Rhodes students] as well as seminar papers featuring a number of discussions on media debates which are current, contentious and possibly controversial. You will also find a assignments page containing contacts to a variety of on-line African Media resources." Web Reports describe online African newspapers. Hosted on the Rhodes University (South Africa) Journalism and Media Studies web site.

Rhodes University. RUSH
"Rush is a website project developed as an extension of the news broadcasts produced by Rhodes University Journalism Three Students." The aim of the of the site is to stream the broadcasts as they occur, as well as hosting the archive video footage."

Sahara' Media
In Arabic. Mauritania television production information agency. Produces programs, and documentary films about political, educational and social issues. The site is produced and overseen by a professional team of journalists. Editorials, news, press review, articles, an interview with 'Izz al-Din Daddah and archives. Says it is "The site represents a new style media in Mauritania since it is considered to be the first electronic journal produced and overseen by a professional team of journalists in Mauritania." Web site based in Lima, Ohio. [CA]

Save the Gambia Democracy Project
On the political situation and violations of press freedom in the Gambia. Based in Atlanta, Georgia.

Sites Media Togo
Directory of newspapers, radio, TV, journalists, professional associations in Togo from the Institut Panos Afrique de l’Ouest. Blogs by Togolese writers. Press legislation.

Somali Journalists Syndicate
In English and Somali.  "independent journalists’ trade union established in May 2019 by professional Somali journalists to defend the rights of the working journalists and promote press freedom." Press freedom alerts and campaigns. Based in Mogadishu, Somalia.  [KF]

Soul Beat Africa. Communication for Change
Find full text reports on using radio, TV, newspapers, edutainment, films, information technology, other media to promote health, education. " Find programmes, activities and projects relevant to your work thru the Programme Experiences database. Has a directory of e-newsletters and journals. Its Resource Mobilisation is a directory of funding, grant sources. Links to related sites. Soul Beat is a partnership between The Royal Netherlands Embassy, Development Cooperation Ireland, European Union, DFID, and BP" and others. [KF]

South Africa. Government Communication & Information System - Media Contacts
Directory of South African TV and radio stations, newspapers, magazines, community radio stations, community newspapers, foreign media in South Africa, freelance journalists in South Africa.

South Africa Independent Media Center. IndyMedia - South Africa
Alternative news on South Africa and other world news. Opposes capitalist globalisation. Individiuals can contribute news stories, photographs, audio, video. Receive weekly headlines by email. Part of the Independent Media Center Network originated in Seattle, Washington.

South African Broadcasting Corporation
"The SABC is South Africa's national public service broadcaster." Has the annual reports online, information on its radio / TV programs.

South African Human Rights Commission (Johannesburg) - The Media
"...the national institution established to entrench constitutional democracy."
Faultlines: Inquiry into Racism in the Media. Investigation into Racism in the Media. Full text in Adobe PDF. 2000.
The News in Black and White: an investigation into racial stereotyping in the media. In Adobe PDF, 60 p. 1999.

Sturmer, Martin - Media History of Tanzania, 1888-1996
The author's thesis. Covers from "the period of the appearance of the first newspaper in 1888 to the democratisation process." Contents: German East Africa, Tanganyika under British Rule, Independence to Democratisation, Media Development on Zanzibar. Bibliography of books, articles, list of Tanzania newspapers. Maintained by Martin Sturmer. [KF]

A mailing list for discussing TV broadcasting in Africa. Maintained by Katim S. Touray.

Uganda Journalism Review (Kampala, Uganda)
Published by the National Institute of Journalists of Uganda in conjunction with the Department of Mass Communications, Makerere University. Has a selection of full text articles on the media and journalism in Uganda. Site has a directory of journalists. [KF]

Uganda Media Women's Association (Kampala, Uganda)
"...formed in 1983, is a non-governmental organisation for female journalists from government and private media." Publishes a newspaper, The Other Voice. Has civic education, rural outreach progarams and a community radio, 101.7 MAMA FM and has produced documentaries. [KF]

UNESCO. Webword. Communication and Information. Activities by Region / Country
UNESCO's activities in the field of communication and information technology.Workhops on ICT for Africa, UNESCO films on the internet in Africa.

Union des journalistes de la presse priv?e du B?nin (UJPB)

United Nations Non-governmental Liaison Service. Voices from Africa
Number 7: Presse et D?mocratie: full text, in French only.
Number 9: Information and Communication Technologies: full text, has the 1997 Dakar Declaration on the Internet and the African Media.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factbook
Has statistics by Country on number of radio stations, TV stations, phones (land and cell), internet hosts, internet users.
And for all countries, number of:
TV broadcast stations:
Radio broadcast stations:
Internet users:

United States. Department of State. Human Rights Reports
Has sections on Freedom of the Press and Internet for each country.

United States. Institute of Peace. - Use and Abuse of Media in Vulnerable Societies
By Mark Frohardt, Internews Regional Director for Africa, and Jon Temin. Uses Rwanda as a case study. Has an annotated bibliography.

University of Cape Town. Centre for Social Science Research
"The Centre for Social Science Research is made up of ...... The Aids and Society Research Unit; the Data First Resource Unit; the Democracy in Africa Research Unit; the Social Surveys Unit and the Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit." Has full text Working Papers (need to be unzipped).
Working Paper topics include:
South African press reporting on children affected by AIDS
Media coverage and the election
KHAYELITSHA / MITCHELL’S PLAIN SURVEY 2000; Survey Report and Baseline Information (98 p. in PDF)

University of Natal. Graduate Programme in Cultural and Media Studies (CMS) (Durban, South Africa)
Course syllabi, abstracts of research reports, etc.

West African Journalists Association
"...a regional grouping of journalists associations and unions in the West African sub-region. It has 16 member unions in the 16 ECOWAS countries."

World Literature Today (Norman, Oklahoma, Vol. 80, No. 5, Sept.-Oct. 2006)
Full text articles from the special section on Censorship in the 21st Century - Power Demons by Ngugi wa Thiong'o (an excerpt from his novel, Wizard of the Crow), Free Speech in Zimbabwe, by Brian Chikwava, and Zimbabwe's Battle for Press Freedom, by Andrew Meldrum. Review of Skinner's Drift, first novel of Lisa Fugard, daughter of Athol Fugard. Published at the Universityi of Oklahoma, Norman, OK. [KF]

Z Magazine - "Africa through the Canadian CorporateLens"
Article, by Justin Podur, Uyen Dias, and Dan Freeman-Maloy, on the Canadian Media and Africa saying journalists "presented distorted and incomplete information [re Africa] in ways that are all-too serviceable to powerful interests in the West." Pub. Aug. 2003.

Zongo Giwa (Accra, Ghana)
Published by the Media Foundation for West Africa, a press freedom / free expression organisation. "named after the murdered Burkinabe and Nigerian journalists (Norbert Zongo and Dele Giwa),...."

Print sources

Walsh, Gretchen. The media in Africa and Africa in the media : an annotated bibliography / with an introduction by Keyan G. Tomaselli.
London ; New Providence, NJ : H. Zell, 1996. 291 p.
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.