Historical photographs

Sites with photograph or graphic resources are listed below.  Historical websites may contain photographs. See also Contemporary Photographs.


Africa in the Photobook
"a website initiated in 2015 by photographer and (photo)historian Ben Krewinkel"
Early albums -  19th and early 20th Century photographic albums

Africa through a lens: The National Archives
Photographs from 1860s to present covering from the Scramble for Africa, the colonial era, and the era of independence. Holdings from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office photographic collection housed in the National Archives.  Users can add comments on the photographs. Africa Through a Lens is part of the National Archives' World Through a Lens collection. Maintained by the United Kingdom, National Archives. [KF] https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/africa/

African Studies Centre Library, Leidan, Netherland
"Collections include 'anthropological' photos from Sierra Leone in the 1930s by Professor Sjoerd Hofstra popular because of the Poro connection, and photographs by Roel Coutinho (Senegal and Guinea Bissau in the 1970s), containing rare images of the liberation movement in the field and photos of the first president and prime-minister of Guinea Bissau...."  https://www.ascleiden.nl/content/photographs

African Studies Library, Leiden, The Netherlands - Guinea-Bissau and Senegal 1973-1974 (Coutinho Collection) 
Photographs by Prof. Roel Coutinho, M.D. who worked in the liberated areas of Guinea-Bissau and Senegal in 1973 and 1974, during the final year of the war of independence waged by the PAIGC (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde). Topics - Daily life, Dance and parties, Hospitals, Medical images, PAIGC soldiers and weapons, People's shops, Schools, Ziguinchor (Senegal) hospital, Cuban medical personnel, Guinea-Bissau's first President Luis Cabral and its first Prime Minister Francisco Mendes. 750 of the 1,250 photographs are online; these can be freely used per Creative Commons license. The photographs are deposited in the African Studies Library, Leiden, The Netherlands.  [KF]  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons:Guinea-Bissau_and_Senegal_1973-1974_(Coutinho_Collection)

Alamy Stock Photo
Licenses use of their photographs and videos. Photograph prices range from c US $13 for personal use to c $184 and more for a marketing package. Has French colonial empire photographs.  Their U.S. office is in Brooklyn. https://www.alamy.com/

American Museum of Natural History. Congo Expedition, May 1909-November 1915 [Historical Photographs]
"In 1909,...Herbert Lang and James Chapin set sail for the Belgian Congo....By the time they sailed home five and one-half years later, they had collected tons of precious zoological and anthropological specimens..." http://diglib1.amnh.org/

  • An introductory, multimedia slide show.
  • Diaries of James Chapin. ("At age 19, in 1909, James Chapin left New York for northeastern Congo where he served as Herbert Lang's assistant for the next five years. Chapin was interested in many aspects of Africa's natural history. Birds, however, were his passion, a fact borne out by these diaries.")
  • Niographies of James Paul Chapin and Herbert Lang, photographs (villages, primates), the watercolors of James Chapin including Congo mural paintings, birds, fish, reptiles, mammels,
  • excerpts from "African Reflections: Art from Northeastern Zaire," by Enid Schildkrout and Curtis A. Keim (AMNH and University of Washington Press, 1990) including their photographs of Congo musical instruments.
  • "160 publications including 120 American Museum of Natural History publications based on the material collected by the 1909-1915 Congo Expedition, 12 British Museum publications by Barry Bolton on Congo ants, 11 publications on African ants by the South African Museum and affiliated organizations, and 17 Congo-related World Conservation Union (IUCN) publications."
  • A central African map with layers. Select which features will appear on the map: lakes, cities, roads, railroads, forest, mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, etc., a map of Chapin and Lang's travels.
  • Historic maps reflecting the "development of European knowledge of African geography from 1562 through 1940." Reproduced with permission of the New York Public Library and the British Library.
  • Audio (requires sound card, headset or speakers) and video clips of the Belgian Congo Records made by the "adventurer and filmmaker Armand Denis during his 1934-35 cross-Africa expedition. They were among the first recordings made of the sounds of the central Congo. The Babiara people, whose songs may be heard..... are one of the four main tribal groups who occupy the Ituri Forest." The video clip shows a traditional Mangbetu dance.
  • A bibliographic essay on sources by Paula Willey, specially prepared bibliographies on Congo Conservation (314 citations), Description & Travel (1218 citations), Maps & Atlases (220 citations).
  • Newspaper Headlines, 1880-1916 about the Congo from the New York Times and the New York Herald. [KF]

Archive of Malian Photography
100,000 photographic negatives from the archives of Mamadou Cissé, Adama Kouyaté, Abdourahmane Sakaly, Malick Sidibé, and Tijani Sitou dating from the 1940s-1990s. Includes biographies of the photographers. https://amp.matrix.msu.edu/

ARTSTOR Public Collections
Open to the public. 1.3 million freely accessible images, videos, documents, and audio files from library special collections, faculty research, and institutional history materials,

Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record
Compiled by Jerome Handler (Virginia Foundation for the Humanities) and Michael Tuite (Digital Medial Laboratory, University of Virginia). Over 1,000 images of pre-colonial Africa (ex. Queen Nzinga, King of Benin, King of the Kongo, European trading posts) and the slave trade in Africa and the Americas. Some images are in color; all have descriptive information and sources. [KF] http://slaveryimages.org/

Au Sénégal - Cartes postales anciennes
In French. Historical postcards (1900-1960) of former French West Africa (Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Burkina Faso) from the Archives Nationales du Senegal. Depicting people, historical events. Citations of the postcards are also in a Microsoft Access database (you need the Access program to use this). Part of a cdrom containing 1,515 postcards and the citations database. Maintained by Archivist Paléographe, Adama Aly PAM. Hosted on the Au-senegal.com site by Imédia, a Senegalese company. [KF] http://www.au-senegal.com/-Cartes-postales-anciennes-.html

Historical currency for African countries. For ex has 2001 currency with the image of : Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe and 1939 French West Africa currency. [KF] https://www.banknotes.com/.

Basel Mission Archive. Photogaraph Collection
Over 25,000 images from the Basel Mission Archive with 6,100 images from Cameroon and 5,900 images from Ghana "dating from 1860 (in the case of Ghana) or 1885 (in the case of Cameroon) to ca. 1945." Includes the "Basel Mission's "sample book" of engravings used in its publications in the 19th century." "These were often "drawn" very exactly from photographs and increase the number of images of direct interest to students of Africa...". The web-site includes a substantialessay in interpretation of the use of photographs for themes of interest to historians, written by Emmanuel Akyeampong. Search the image database by Proper name, Institution name, Photographer / Photo Studio, Theme, Geography. http://basel.bmpix.org/index.html

Beech, Joan - Follow the Red Dirt Road: The Story of our Life in West Africa from 1947 to 1958
Site is closed but has been archived by archive.org. Full text account of an English woman and her husband who was a Chief Assayer for a gold mine in the Gold Coast. Includes photographs. Mentions Kwame Nkrumah. http://dpicg.com/joan_beech/    https://web.archive.org/web/20140913002710/http://dpicg.com/joan_beech/

British Library. Images Online
Antiquarian maps, historical personages, etc. The Visual Arts Collection includes photographs, paintings, prints, furniture. https://imagesonline.bl.uk/

British Pathe Film Archive
A rich video news archive covering historical events, sport, social history and entertainment from 1896 to 1976. The entire film collection is on YouTube. See the YouTube Channel. Obtain free low resolution video clips after the free registration. High resolution copies for PowerPoint Presentations and Web Publishing require a license fee.* The purpose of the site is mainly educational use. Commercial users who wish to order a videotape or DVD must order through a British Pathe librarian. The original film is 35mm. The free downloaded files may be e-mailed to others. By spring 2003, JPEG images will be available. For best search results, one needs to use a one word search such as Kenya or Nigeria and then look through the entire results. [KF] http://www.britishpathe.com/flashintro.cfm
*Higher quality hard copy on VHS (PAL format only) can be ordered. "There are three options for purchasing clips; single stories can be bought for £18 each, up to 7 stories costs £75, and 8 or more stories costs £10 each, all inclusive of VAT. Postage and Packing is an additional £2.25 for customers inside the United Kingdom, £10.00 for customers outside the United Kingdom."

Centre Edmond Fortier
Original site is closed but archived at archive.org.In Dutch, English, French. Photographs by Edmond Fortier on historical postcards,1900 - 1910. Has an exhibition of postcards from Guinee (1905), Tombouctou (1906), Benin (1908), Saint-Louis (1900), Djenné (1905). "Includes photographs of l 'Almami" Samori Touré, the son of El Hajj Umar. As photographer and publisher of postcards, he visited Senegal and Guinea, Mali in 1906, Ivory- coast, Benin and Lagos in 1908..."  Site maintained by Jacques Krekelaar. [KF] http://home.planet.nl/~kreke003

Companhia de Moçambique
In Portuguese. "Retratos da África Oriental Portuguesa" Photographs from Álbuns Fotográficos e Descritivos da Colónia de Moçambique, by José dos Santos Rufino (1929). Links to other Mozambique blogs. On the Blogger web site. [KF] http://www.companhiademocambique.blogspot.com/

Congo Stamps
Stamps from the DRC (from the Independant State Congo 1886-1908 to the present), Burundi, Rwanda. Detailed descriptions, photographs, bibliography. Forgeries. Questions page. Maintained by Guy van Rijn. [KF] http://www.congostamps.com/

Crawfurd, Jacob
Jacob Crawfurd's 100 photographs of Cameroon, East Africa slide show and video clips, a panorama photograph of the valley in Bafang, Cameroon, plus 1937 historical photographs (no captions). Crawfurd, from Denmark, also heads JCJ Film, a one-man production company producing documentaries and short features. Learn about his video short story, Low Tide, with the Kizingo Arts Troupe, a group of 25 young Kenyan artists based in Mombasa, who perform Malaika. http://crawfurd.dk/africa

Creation of the OAU (Organization of African Unity) - Makonnen Ketema
Account by Makonnen Ketema whose father, the late Ketema Yifru, was former foreign minister of Ethiopia and closely involved in the OAU's creation. Includes a biography and photographs of K. Yifru. Also photographs of Kwame Nkrumah, Modibo Kieta of Mali, Seku Toure of Guinea, Emperor Haile Selassie, Jomo Kenyatta, William Tubman, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Diallo Telli, Tafewa Balewa, Salim Ahmed Salim and others. http://www.oau-creation.com

[Curtin] Philip Curtin Collection
Black and white photographs from the 1960s of the Senegambia, by History Professor Philip Curtin. Part of the African Online Digital Library. http://www.aodl.org/westafrica/curtin.php

Davies, Rick - Mogadishu Images from the Past
"A cartographic and photographic record of Mogadishu, Somalia, from the late 18th century to 1990. This page has been created and maintained by Rick Davies (Ph.D.), a resident of the city in the 1980s." Photographs, drawings, maps with commentary and background. Dr. Davies, an Australian, is a Monitoring and Evaluation consultant in Cambridge, U.K. See related websites. http://mogadishuimages.wordpress.com/

Die Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft (DKG) Bildarchiv
In English and German. The Stadt- und Universit?tsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main has put on-line a large keyword searchable database of colonial era photographs, 1822-1936, from the archives of the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft [German Colonial Society], a major organization behind Germany's colonial expansion. Covers Namibia, Tanzania, Cameroon, Togo, etc.  One can click on the small photos to see a larger version. The database can be searched by Region, Subject Areas, Keyword, Person, Photographer, People. The collection, of thousands of photographs, is also being microfilmed for preservation. [B.Lawrance and KF] http://www.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/afrika/bildsammlung_en.html

Eboué, Félix
Eboué, Governor of Chad, during World War II, aligned with Charles de Gaulle's Free French Forces in defiance of the Vichy regime. Eboué, originally from French Guiana, became Governor-General of French Equatorial Africa. He is buried in the Pantheon in Paris. Centre des Archives d'Outre Mer. Exposition Félix Eboué, Pantheon, Paris. In French. October 14 - November 5, 2004, the Centre held a conference and exhibition in Paris celebrating the 60th anniversary of the death of Eboué. Photographs from Eboué's life (at the Ecole coloniale, map of French Equatorial Africa, letter from General de Gaulle to Eboué, Eboué at the Brazzaville Conference, etc. [KF] http://www.archivesnationales.culture.gouv.fr/caom/fr/expo/index_expo.html
Exposition FÉLIX EBOUÉ à la Médiathèque Caraïbe. In French. Biography and bibliography. http://perso.wanadoo.fr/lameca/neuf/programme/expo_eboue_03_2005.htm

France. Bibliotheque nationale. Gallica
"Gallica propose un accès à 70 000 ouvrages numérisés, à plus de 80 000 images et à plusieurs dizaines d'heures de ressources sonores." Images and full text from 19th century books and journals. Included are illustrations from over 16 African travel and ethnographic books from the Library of the Musee de l'Homme. For example, portraits of Senegalese women are in Esquisses s?n?galaises, Physionomie du pays, Peuplades, Commerce, Religions, Pass? et avenir, R?cits et l?gendes [Paris : P. Bertrand , 1853]. [KF] http://gallica.bnf.fr/

France. Centre des Archives d' Outre- Mer ( Aix-en-Provence ) - Photograph Database, Ulysse
In French. The database, Ulysse has hundreds of photographs, posters, and eventually maps. Search under region and country. "Commencée en 2002, cette base a pour objectif de rendre progressivement accessibles les photographies isolées ou en albums, les cartes postales, les affiches, les dessins et gravures, les cartes et plans." Covers the 17th to mid 20th centuries. http://anom.archivesnationales.culture.gouv.fr/sdx/ulysse/index

Garvey - Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers Project
Project, directed by Robert A. Hill, at the James S. Coleman African Studies Center, UCLA. Has sample documents for the African series, 1913-1945 and a photo gallery. http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/mgpp/

Getty Images
Contemporary and historical photographs, video, music. Single images range from $175-$499. Music requires their Premium Access Plan. Formerly Corbis. https://www.gettyimages.com/

Google Image Search
Page or scroll half way down the page to Image Search. A search on Haile Sellassie retrieved over 20 images, for Patrice Lumumba over 30 images, for Julius Nyerere over 50 images and for ibeji (twin figures) c. 60 images. Pages take a while to load. Results are pretty good though it's a puzzle as to why some images are retrieved. http://images.google.com/

Graham (Billy) Center Archives, Wheaton College, IL
Its Images of Colonial Africa exhibit are photographs by missionary Laura Collins of Kenya, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), and Uganda in the early 1900s. http://www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/archhp1.html

Hoover Institution - Archives - Posters
Some of their posters are online. Under Formats, the first item is Posters. Click on View All.  On the left is a Menu of Posters by Place of Origin. Click on MORE to see all the countries. Examples - South Africa 1963, Mozambique 72, Namibia 37, Somalia 34, Nigeria 31 https://digitalcollections.hoover.org/collections#formats

Illustrated London News
https://www.iln.co.uk/  Stanford University users link for the Licensed database of the former illustrated newspaper. https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/486867

Iluminando Vidas - Fotografia Mocambicana 1950-2001, Ricardo Rangel & the Next Generation
Site has closed. A photo exhibition about Mozambique photography from 1950 to 2001 by Ricardo Rangel, his proteges, Kok Nam and others. Daily life in Mozambique from colonial times to the present. Over 100 black and white photographs. Photographers' biographies, self portraits. An exhibition catalog was published. Historical timeline. [KF] 

Images du passé en Afrique de l'Ouest
Images of old postcards depicting West Africa - Senegal (Dakar, Saint Louis, Ziguinchor), Dahomey, Haute Volta, Guinea (Conakry), Côte d'Ivoire, Soudan français, Niger, Cameroun, Freetown, Chad (Fort Lamy), Togo (Lomé, Atakpamé), Gold Coast (Accra, Kumasi). Maintained by Olivier Blot, a journalist and editor. http://idpao.com/

Imperial War Museum
The Museum's Photograph Archive holds over six million images. The largest number are on World Wars I and II including the contribution of Commonwealth countries. "Britain's developing role as an international peacekeeper and the contribution of its armed forces to NATO and humanitarian relief efforts are also shown." See their Search function to find selected resources .https://www.iwm.org.uk/

Institut Fondemental d'Afrique Noire (IFAN) - Photographs
A selection of photographs from the IFAN collection - hairstyles, ceremonies, dress/adornment, Faidherbe, etc. IFAN, in Dakar, Senegal, was founded in 1939. [KF] http://www.aodl.org/westafrica/ifan.php

Istituto Luce Cinecittà
Historical film archive from Italy. Has Reparto Africa Orientale Italiana (1935-1938), photographs of "Italy's colonial enterprise in Ethiopia."  https://patrimonio.archivioluce.com/luce-web/

  • Videos from the 1920s to 1990s. Some on Ethiopia include the coronation of Tafari Makonnen, Mussolini visiting colonial troops, visits of Viceroy Rodolfo Graziani to Ethiopia, visit of Attilio Teruzzi to Somalia, Haile Selassie I, in 1952 and his 1970 visit to Rome, visit of Ethiopian Prince Assan Wessen to Paris (he speaks briefly). Site maintained by the Italian Government, Ministero dei Beni e delle Attività Culturali e del Turismo. Based in Rome. [KF]

ITN Archive
"ITN Archive is one of the largest moving picture archives in the world with over 300,000 hours of material. With material dating back to 1896, the holdings comprise of all of ITN's output since 1955, the entire Reuters Television Library, the British Pathe News Archive and the Channel 4 Television archive. ITN Archive includes historic newsreel footage, news agency material, rushes (b-roll) and broadcast news items from 1896 to the present day. Content includes: British Pathe 1896 - 1970, Gaumont Graphic 1910 - 1932, Empire News Bulletin 1926-1930, British Paramount News 1931-1957, Gaumont British 1929-1959, Universal News 1930-1949, Visnews 1957-1992, Reuters Television 1992 - present day, ITN 1955 - present day, Channel 4 Television 1982 - present day." http://www.itnsource.com/en/

Journal of Sports History
Has full text articles, in Adobe pdf. Use the Search to find articles such as "Capturing 'The African' Body? Visual Images and 'Imaginative Sports' " by John Bale in Vol. 25, No. 2, of "The Journal of Sport History (18 pages) has been published by the North American Society for Sport History since 1974." [KF] http://www.aafla.com/5va/history_frmst.htm

Kaplan, Marion - Photographs
Kaplan writes - "Born in London, I lived as photojournalist and writer in Africa for twenty years."  Includes photos of arab dhows, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Uganda, political figures (Bokassa, Haile Selassie, Jomo Kenyatta, Idi Amin), wild animals, etc.. http://www.marionkaplan.com/

Kenya National Archives. Mashujaa Wetu: Heroes of the Kenyan Nation
Slide show of Kenyan history. Use your computer's arrow keys to navigate. Text and photographs from the Kenya National Archives. Hosted by Google's Cultural Institute. 

Lafayette Negative Archive at the Victoria and Albert Museum
Photographs of Ethiopia including Ras Makonnen and his retinue, part of "...a collection of approximately 3,500 negatives dating from the 1880's to the 1930's" from a Dublin, Ireland photography studio founded in 1880. Ras Makönnen was an Ethiopian General & Governor of Harar and father of Emperor Haile Sellasie I. Has an account of "The Visit to England in 1902 of Ras Makonnen of Ethiopia" for the Coronation of King Edward VII. Detailed descriptions of photos. http://lafayette.org.uk/ethiopia.html

Landau, Paul - "Photography and Colonial Vision"
Excerpt from a 1999 draft essay by Prof. Landau, History Dept., Yale University. To be pub. in "Images and Empires: Visuality in Colonial and Post-Colonial Africa," edited by Paul S. Landau and Deborah Kaspin). (H-Africa's Africa Forum #6) http://www.h-net.org/~africa/africaforum/Landau.html

Larrabee, Constance Stuart - South Africa 1936-1949
Use the Search page. Search for Constance Stuart Larrabee to find over 2,000 citations. Photos are not online.  Photograph exhibition at the Smithsonian Museum of African Art (Washington, D.C.) Larrabee "worked as a professional photographer in South Africa until 1950. Her aesthetic eye is apparent in the exquisite black-and-white images that document the lives of African peoples in both rural and urban settings." http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp

League of Nations Photo Archive
The League of Nations Archives’ photograph collections. "The originals of the photos are held with the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG) Library, League of Nations Archives Sub-Unit and are its property." Includes photographs such as: Abyssina (Ethiopia). Delegation from Ethiopia on the admission to the League of Nations, September 28, 1923 From left to right, Robert Linant de Bellefonds, Dedjazinatch Nadeon, Ato Fassika.Geneva, 1923. and and photograph of Haile Selassie (See the Photos of Personalities, section 15). Includes a digital copy of The Illustrated Album of the League of Nations, the League of Nations a Pictorial Survey. Has a chronology of the League of Nations from 1920 to 1946, bibliography, research guide, related sites. Produced by the League of Nations Archives, Geneva, Switzerland and the Center for the Study of Global Change, Bloomington, Indiana. [KF] http://www.indiana.edu/~league/

Lerner Publishing Group. Visual Geography Series
Has a few maps of African countries which can be saved to your computer and a small selection of photographs (some historical) which can be downloaded as well. See the Notes/Instructions for printing information. Lerner is a children's book publisher based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. http://www.vgsbooks.com/

Liberia Past and Present
Political and economic history of Liberia, including cultural affairs, from 1822 to date. Includes a chronology of Liberia's presidents with biographical information, maps, photographs (19th c. colonists), section on Liberian money with images, a bibliography. Maintained by Dr. Fred Van Der Kraaij whose dissertation was on the role of foreign investments in the development of Liberia 1900-1977, published as "The open door policy of Liberia : an economic history of modern Liberia ." (1983). [KF] http://www.liberiapastandpresent.org

Library of Congress - African Historic Postcard Collection
The Library of Congress has over 2000 Africa related historic postcards covering from 1895 to 1960. If the screen looks blank, wait for the photos to load. https://www.loc.gov/rr/amed/afs/africana-postcards.html

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division
"55,000 images related to Sub-Saharan Africa" Thumbnails only online for most images. Most higher resolution images viewable only at the Library of Congress. Many historical photographs such as Emperor Haile Sellassie with his pet dog, Bull; "Charles de Gaulle, chief of the Free France, is welcomed to Chad by Govenor-General Eboue of Free French Africa" LC owns the Look Magazine Photograph Collection among others. Includes posters such as "Journée de l'armée d'Afrique et des troupes coloniales" by Lucien Jonas, [KF] http://www.loc.gov/pictures/

Markspark.com -African Odyssey
Narrative and photographs of the author's travels through Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana in the spring of 1999. Some photographs cover themes (statues, transport, women). Has a photo of Thomas Sankara's grave (former Burkina Faso president). By Mark Davies of London, U.K. [KF] http://www.markspark.com/africa99/

Memória Portuguesa de África e do Orient
In Portuguese. Site takes a while to load. Historical postcards from Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé e Príncipe. Click on the thumbnail to see a larger image. João M.Loureiro, owner of the postcards, has published them as books which are sold on the web site. http://www.postaisultramar.com.pt

MUNDUS Gateway to Missionary Collections in the U.K.
A rich resource for locating U.K. archives of missionary societies and missionaries in Africa. Guide to more than 400 collections of missionary materials in over 40 institutions in the United Kingdom. Locate archives by geographic area, personal name, organizations, subjects, keyword. Maintained by Archive staff at the University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies. Includes a sample of historical photographs, links to related sites. http://www.mundus.ac.uk

National Archives of England, Wales and the United Kingdom - Image Library

National Archives (United Kingdom) - Africa Through a Lens
Thousands of photographs dating from the 1860s to the 1980s are online. Incuded are "people, places, national and imperial events, conflict and natural disasters." People may add comments or identifying information to the photos.The images are from the Colonial Office Library. Approximately 10,000 images, a third of the entire collection, have been digitised" as of Feb. 2011. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/africa/

National Library of Australia - Picture Australia
Thousands of historical photographs (Boer War, South Africa, East Africa, Zanzibar, etc.). http://www.pictureaustralia.org/

National Library of Australia. Pictures Catalogue
Search for citations to images in the library and to online images. Searching on Africa produces over 60 online images, mainly South African (Cape Town, Table Mountain) historical images / drawings / cartoons, African birds and one African beetle. [KF] http://www.nla.gov.au/catalogue/pictures/

National Library of Canada. Images in the News: Canadian Illustrated News
Images of people, places and events from Canada and around the world from the magazine (published in Montreal) covering 1869-1883. Images for Africa are from the Ashanti War (and Ashanti Wars), Gold Coast and one of Fort Beaufort, South Africa. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/databases/cin/index-e.html

National Library of South Africa. Digital Collections
Digitized primary sources. Examples --

Newspapers - African Leader, Amanzimtoti Observer, Bantu World, Basutoland News, Cape Argus, Cape Indian
Journals - Burlesque (weekly family & society)
Posters - Political, World War II, Shipping Lines
Postcards - Cape Town
Bleek Collection - African languages, plants

New York Public Library
Historical photographs include

Nkrumah Infosite
Biography, bibliography of books on Nkrumah, photographs, audio clips. Designed by Zizwe Mtafuta-Ukweli for R4R productions. http://www.nkrumah.net/indexes/z1.html

Northern Rhodesians Worldwide
Has stories of life in Northern Rhodesia, historical photographs and excerpts from the "British South Africa Historical Catalogue & Souvenir of Rhodesia from the Empire Exhibition, Johannesburg, 1936-1937." http://www.niner.net/nr/index.shtml

Northwestern University. Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies - African Posters
Has online images of 77 posters, part of a larger collection. Posters are from anti-apartheid movements, South Africa under apartheid, the 1994 South African election and Lusophone / Southern Africa liberation movements. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/africana/collections/posters/index.html

Northwestern University. Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies. Winterton Collection
The Humphrey Winterton Collection of East African (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zanzibar) and Ethiopia photographs comprises c. 7,600 photographs taken primarily in East Africa between about 1860 and 1960. http://www.library.northwestern.edu/africana/winterton/index.html

Open Video Project - Wheels Across Africa
Video dated 1936. "Armand Davis leads motor expedition in Africa, powered by Dodge cars." In three parts. Requires soundcard and speakers/headset for the audio." The video is from the Internet Archive. The Open Video Project is managed at the Interaction Design Laboratory, at the School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." " "The purpose of the Open Video Project is to collect and make available a repository of digitized video content for the digital video, multimedia retrieval, digital library, and other research communities." [KF] http://www.open-video.org/

Pankhurst, Richard - Ethiopian History
Many articles by Dr. Pankhurst originally published in the newspaper, Addis Tribune. Topics include Ethiopian crosses, art, manuscripts, Lalibala, the looted Aksum Obelisk, Ethiopian artists, early history of photography in Ethiopia, etc. http://www.abyssiniacybergateway.net/ethiopia/history/pankhurst.html

Panos Pictures
Use the Search box to locate historical photographs (early 1900s) of the Congo (DRC) from Anti-Slavery International taken by Alice Seeley Harris and her husband, John Harris. Has extensive descriptions. " Their photographs formed part of what was probably the first orchestrated multimedia campaign against large scale human rights abuses. Alice Seeley Harris was a missionary in the Belgian Congo, and during her time there witnessed the horrific abuses of the indigenous population exploited by a wicked regime under King Leopold II of Belgium." http://www.panos.co.uk/

PictureNET Africa (Houghton, South Africa)
Its Gallery has contemporary and historical photographs. Licenses photographs of the late South African photographer, Ken Oosterbroek (1962-1994), Drum magazine / Baileys African History Archive, and photographs from South Africa's Sowetan newspaper. http://picturenet.africa.com/home.html

Royal Geographical Society
The Picture Library holds photographs and artwork from the 1830s onwards "covering a wide variety of subjects including climbing, the Colonial Empire, deserts, exploration, indigenous peoples, landscapes, remote destinations and travel." Does have a slide show with an 1873 photo of a crowd entering Christianbourg Castle in Ghana. http://www.rgs.org/
Special collections include:

  • Thomas Baines (1820-1875): "The Society holds over forty original oil paintings and numerous sketches and watercolours, (mainly of Africa and Australia) by Baines, resident artist of the Society and artist on Livingstone's 1858 expedition to the Zambezi." In the Picture Library, see the Gallery.
  • Samuel White Baker (1821-1893): "Watercolour sketches by this big game hunter, illustrate Baker's expedition to locate the source of the Nile. Baker with his wife Florence, who together travelled through Africa and reached a large lake in 1864 which Baker named Lake N'yanza, now Lake Albert on the Uganda/Zaire border. It was only later established as a secondary source of the River Nile."
  • Sir Harry Johnston (1858-1927): "Penetrating portraits and social documentation by this colonial administrator, geographer and anthropologist of Africa (1890-1900)...."

Schadeberg, Jurgen
Site of the photographer who "documented black life, capturing on film the Rise of the Freedom Movement, Apartheid Repression and the vibrancy of township life and culture." "The Schadeberg Collection of Photographs brings to life key social, cultural and political events and personalities in South Africa's turbulent history." Recent photos, the San people of the Kalahari, jazz, Kliptown. http://www.jurgenschadeberg.com/

Senegal Online - Historical Photographs - l'Afrique Occidentale Française
Historial images from French West Africa. Based in Melun, France. [KF] http://www.senegal-online.com/histoire/

Sierra Leone Web - Photographs
Many sites with Sierra Leone photographs. Includes historic photos and postcards from Gary Schulze and Glenn Elert's Salone Scrapbook with currency from the 1980s and earlier. Site maintained by Peter C. Andersen. http://www.Sierra-Leone.org/photos.html

Smithsonian Institution. National Museum of African Art. In and Out of Focus. Images from Central Africa, 1885-1960
A small selection from the exhibit of "...photographs from central Africa [DRC, Congo-Brazzaville, Rwanda, Tanzania, Angola] circulated as postcards, stereographs and illustrations between 1885, when the region came under the colonial domination of the Belgian crown, France and Portugal, and 1960, when central African countries gained their independence." http://www.nmafa.si.edu/exhibits/focus/index.html

Smithsonian Institution. National Museum of African Art. Sailors and Daughters: Early Photography and the Indian Ocean
Early photographs, lithographs, postcards, and private albums, bibliography, audio Oud music and Swahili poetry in Swahili, Arabic, and English. http://indian-ocean.africa.si.edu/

Swaziland Digital Archives
Digitizes old photos,  distributes them free on the internet, and for a nominal cost on CDs. Has some contemporary photos. http://www.sntc.org.sz/sdphotos/

Uganda - An Air Photo Archive of Settlement and Agriculture Rural Uganda 1963
Photographs taken 1963 for a study of indigenous land use and settlement (West Nile and the North East) by Walter W. Deshler, on a sabbatical leave from the Geography Department, University of Maryland. Also ground based views of houses, granaries and other items. "Air photo archive of settlement and agriculture in rural Uganda 1963. Most photos are from low flying aircraft. Landscapes are shown in some detail, including houses, granaries, crops in the field, occasionally livestock and corrals." http://uganda1963.org/ Mirror site at the University of Maryland Geography Department: http://www.geog.umd.edu/research/projects/Uganda/

UNESCO Photobank Online
In English and French. Photographs and slides from 1946 + when UNESCO was founded. Search options include by country, geographic location (city, etc.), topic, photographer, year, keyword. http://photobank.unesco.org/exec/index.htm

University of Cape Town Libraries
Photographers     Photographic Collections

University of Cape Town Libraries - The San (Bushman) Photographs of Dorothea Bleek
A selection of photos from "an album containing 310 photographs [1910 to the 1920s] taken by Dorothea Bleek during her many expeditions to identify and record the San (Bushman) languages of Southern Africa." Includes Bleek's "Distribution map of Bushmen languages." http://www.lib.uct.ac.za/mss/existing/DBleekXML/website/

University of Cape Town Libraries - UCT Through the Years
"Groote Schuur Campus 1900 - Present" Historical photographs (buildings) of the University of Cape Town campus. "....selected from a collection of photographs of the Groote Schuur campus, in the Manuscripts and Archives Department at the University of Cape Town Libraries. They date from the early 1900s to the present ....." http://www.lib.uct.ac.za/mss/existing/GrooteSchuurCampus/UpperCampusEAD.htm

University of Florida. Photographs of Africa

University of Natal. Campbell Historic Photograph Collection
Need to register to look at images. "some 30,000 images, [by Dr Killie Campbell] mainly black and white and sepia toned prints, a rich visual documentation of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, mainly of Natal and Zululand." Includes Bambata Rebellion 1906, Dinuzulu, King of the Zulu, "early Durban, including street scenes, architecture, harbour and environs in late nineteenth century," Cape Town; Stellenbosch; Pietermaritzburg; King William's Town, Sheba Mine and town of Barberton, Swaziland, raiilways, hunting scenes, military groups, cultural dress and traditions of Northern Zululand and Tongaland. Part of the Killie Campbell Africana Library. [KF] http://campbell.ukzn.ac.za/

University of Southern California. Internet Mission Photography Archive
"...historical images from Protestant and Catholic missionary collections in Britain, Norway, Germany, and the United States." Search by country or repository. Includes Ghana, Madagascar, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. The photographs relating to Africa come from the archives of the Moravian Church, Leipzig Mission, the Norwegian Missionary Society, and the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Site based at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. [KF] http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/impa/controller/index.htm

University of Virginia. Cape Coast Archive
Photographs of Ghana. Includes downtown Cape Coast, Cape Coast Castle, Elmina Castle, Asafo Shrine-Elmina, Kakum National Park, Government House 1998, architectural drawings 1999, local street signs / billboards 1999, historic photos of jails, churches, government buildings, children, Panafest 1999, boat building, Ko-sa Beach Resort, two early maps." For the Panoramic Images - Click on the far right symbol, place the cursor on the photo and hold the mouse button down to see a panorama of each photo. "a collaborative effort by the University of Virginia Library, the United States branch of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), and Ghanaian institutions to document the unique cultural landscape of the Cape Coast,..." [KF] http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/CapeCoastArchive/

University of Virginia. Jackson Davis Collection (1915-1930)
Over 400 photographs (with almost no descriptions) from various African countries (Uganda,  Zimbabwe, Liberia, Congo, etc.). Part of 4,000 photographs of African-American educational scenes in the southern United States. Photographs by Jackson Davis ca. 1915-1930 taken when he was with the General Education Board in New York, New York. http://www.lib.virginia.edu/speccol/jdavis/

University of Washington Libraries - Cities and Buildings Database
Many photographs of buildings from Ethiopia (churches, traditional wall paintings, Lalibela, photos by Juli McGruder), also from Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana (slave castles, traditional buildings), Northern Ghana (Herbert Cole photographs), Kenya (traditional buildings, Fort Jesus), Mali (mosques, cliff dwellings, Timbuktu), Niger (markets, Univ. of Niamey, villages, resorts, Nigeria (Nigerian architect's residence, markets, local govt buildings, compounds, homes, schools, Lagos, shrines, National Museum, includes Simon Ottenberg's photographs, secret society building), Tanzania (Zanzibar, mosques, carved doors, Zanzibar fort, People's Palace, includes photos by Juli McGruder), Zimbabwe (Great Zimbabwe, photos by Juli McGruder), Madagascar, Senegal. Includes photographs from journalist Lisa Schnellinger. [KF] http://content.lib.washington.edu/buildingsweb/index.html

University of the Western Cape. Robben Island Mayibuye Archives - Photographs
No photos online. An archive and museum documenting South Africa's liberation struggle. "documents South African history from colonial occupation to the present with a specific focus on life under apartheid,..." Includes the photo archives of the former London based IDAF, International Defense and Aid Fund, Eli Weinberg Collection and the Leon Levson Collection.http://www.robben-island.org.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=35&Itemid=58

West African Online Digital Library - Historical Photographs
Project of Michigan State University, IFAN, and WARC. http://www.aodl.org/
Includes -

Sampling from L'Institut Fondemental d'Afrique Noire, IFAN (historical photographs),
Phil Curtin Collection (photographs, audio interview on his work on economic change in precolonial Senegambia in the era of the slave trade, Bundu),
Photographs from “Passport to Paradise’: Sufi Arts of Senegal and Beyond (the "urban visual culture of the Mourides, a Senegalese Sufi movement centered upon the life and teachings of a local saint named Sheikh Amadou Bamba"),
Mosques of Bondoukou (1980s photographs). [KF]

White Fathers / Pères Blancs / Société des Missionnaires d'Afrique - Photographs
In French and English. "The Society of the Missionaries of Africa (White Fathers) was born in Algeria, founded in 1868 by Mgr Charles Lavigerie, archbishop of Algiers." Includes historical photographs from the Centenaire de l'Evangélisation au Rwanda, etc. [KF] http://www.africamission-mafr.org/

See also Register to the Photograph Collection of the White Fathers (Society of Missionaries of Africa)
By Robert Leopold, Daisy Njoku and Marion Rawson (National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, October 2000). This is the finding aid; it does not include actual photographs. http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/fa/whitefathers.htm

Wikimedia Commons
Large collection of contemporary and historical photos. Includes photos from the Aart Rietveld collection, African Studies Centre Library, Leidan which has Robben Island photos and Nigeria 1970s photos. You can upload your photos. https://commons.wikimedia.org

Wise's World Paper Money Collection
A great collection of scanned images of African and other paper money. Dates vary for each country, some from 1919 to the 1990s. See French West African currency from the 1930s and 40s or Biafra's currency. Many have portraits of African leaders. Ronald Wise, Jr. works at Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis. http://aes.iupui.edu/rwise/notedir/africa.html

World Digital Library
In seven languages. Primary sources world wide. Antiquarian African maps, Arabic manuscripts from Timbuktu, early 20th century photographs, text of the speech by Nigerian independence leader Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-96) on the day he became governor-general of Nigeria, South African San rock paintings, early travel journals. Supported by the U.S. Library of Congress, UNESCO, and National Libraries world wide. http://www.wdl.org/

Yale University Library - Casimir Zagourski Postcard Collection
200 postcards (many online) from the photogaraphs of Zagourski, of Polish parentage, who moved to Leopoldville, Congo in 1924. From 1924 and 1941, he traveled around Belgian Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Chad, Kenya, Central African Republic, Cameroon, and Congo-Brazzaville as a photographer. http://www.library.yale.edu/african/zagourski.html

 Yale University - David Apter Collection
"125 photographs taken by David E. Apter from 1951 to 1960 in the African countries of Ghana (formerly known as the Gold Coast), Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, and Benin (formerly known as Dahomey), during the buildup of nationalism and the start of independence. The photographs portray scenes of everyday life in these countries." Apter was Professor in the Departments of Political Science and Sociology. See also Guide to his papers and obituary. http://images.library.yale.edu/madid/showthumb.aspx?q1=1806&qc1=contains&qf1=subject1&qx=1004.2

"a forum which brings together Zanzibaris of all backgrounds." Has a brief history of the Swahili language, by Hassan O. Ali; revised by Abdurahman Juma; 1988 population census information, historical photographs, photographs of violent events from the October 29, 2000 general elections links to related sites. Maintained by Idris A. Rai. Based in Ottawa, Canada. [KF] http://www.zanzinet.org/

Yale University. History of Christianity
"resources in the area of History of Christianity, including the best databases, reference tools, and online resources" Includes Free Web Resources on Religion: Image Resources. https://guides.library.yale.edu/historyofchristianity