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  1. Crops

    Topeka, KS : Kansas Agricultural Statistics, Kansas Dept. of Agriculture

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  2. Crops

    Sutton, Surrey, England : Farmers Weekly Group, Reed Business Information

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  3. Crops

    Kwiatkowski, Grzegorz
    Minneapolis : OHM Editions, [2021]

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  1. SDR Deposit of the Week: Corn and Climate Change

    Climate change is all over the news these days, and when a report in the journal Science indicates potential impacts on the future of food production in the US, people sit up and take notice. David Lobell, associate professor of environmental Earth system science and associate director of the Center on Food Security and the Environment, led a team that analyzed data on corn and soybean production along with daily weather data in actual fields in the Midwestern United States. The large dataset of crop and weather information compiled for these studies is now available for download from the Stanford Digital Repository. It's great that the accumulated effort this data set represents is now preserved and available for other scientists to use! The goal was to look at crop yields over time for different kinds of stresses and to assess drought sensitivity. Studies to address these types of questions are often undertaken in experimental fields, but that methodology does not always yield results that are directly translatable to "real" farming. So, what did Lobell's team find out? Use of no- or low-till systems and advances in genetics have allowed farmers to sow fields more densely (more plants per acre), resulting in improved crop yields. However, the study finds that drought sensitivity in these fields has increased over the last 18 years. This may be because increased sowing density imposes higher stress on the plants in times of drought.  At the current rate of sensitivity, climate change models indicate that corn yields could decline as much as 15% over the next 50 years. However, if sensitivity of these plants continues to increase as well, losses could amount to as much as 30%. To read more about this research, visit the School of Earth Sciences web site or check out the paper in Science.

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  2. SDR Deposit of the week: Undergraduate theses in Physics and Engineering Physics

    The Undergraduate Theses collections for Physics and Engineering Physics are now open for deposit. This year’s crop of top undergraduates in the Department of Physics and in the Engineering Physics program have the distinction of being the first undergrads to deposit their theses in the SDR. These two are the first of several honors theses collections opening this quarter. (The School of Education is assembling their collection together now, and two other departments may follow suit.) Librarian Stella Ota manages the collections, working with faculty, staff, and the selected students to use the Self Deposit application. She has been collecting digital honors theses offline since 2010. When the ETD system launched in fall 2009, Stella had a vision for using a similar process to collect the Physics undergraduate theses for access and preservation in the SDR. Yet without a deposit interface, it proved to be challenging to track down each student, to have them sign a hard-copy deposit agreement, to collect the PDF files by thumbdrive or email, and to create the metadata. The Self Deposit workflow promises to make the whole process of collecting and archiving these works more systematic, more secure, and more efficient. Stella’s small but carefully-tended and well-organized collection became an obvious first pilot for the SDR web interface. She started depositing the backlog of 2010, 2011, and 2012 papers starting in February. As the first SUL selector to use Self Deposit, Stella has given the SDR team a wealth of feedback and input to inform the application UI, workflow, and overall deposit service for students and their department stakeholders. Some of these theses have won awards and many are likely to lead to future dissertations and journal articles. For example, check out Plasmonic metallic nanoparticles by Ana Brown (2010),  Effects of Supersonic Relative Velocity Between Baryons and Dark Matter in the Early Universe by Gregory Peairs (2012), and Internal Beam Annihilation Therapy: A Novel Approach to Radiation Therapy by Michael Liu (2011).  Soon all items in the collections will be discoverable in SearchWorks. The Department of Physics honors theses print collection, housed in University Archives and going back to the 1970s, has been digitized but is not available online due to copyright restrictions.       

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  3. Artificial intelligence and the library of the future, revisited

    There are two breakthrough technologies catching fire on campus these days. One of them, CRISPR-Cas9, is changing our relationship to the physical world through gene editing. The other, Artificial Intelligence (AI), is changing how we generate, process and analyze information. AI already touches many of our daily computing activities, from searching the web to managing spam in email applications. It underlies the speech recognition that makes Apple’s Siri, Microsoft’s Cortana, Amazon’s Alexa, and the Google Assistant able to process and respond — with some success — to our queries.[1] It is the computer vision that helps self-driving cars and food delivery robots navigate our streets and sidewalks. The fundamental activity driving these varied applications of AI is search within a large space of possibilities. It is not deep cognition but perceptual recognition. The power lies in the fact that machines can recognize patterns efficiently and routinely, at a scale and speed that humans cannot approach. Though the underlying AI technologies that make all these applications possible have existed since the 1970s and 80s, AI has really taken off in the last decade, applied to search within images, sound, and text.[2] Natural Language Processing (NLP) in Linguistics is a system for understanding language that has opened entirely new avenues of research across the university, making it possible to mine large corpora, identify topics, recognize named entities (people, places, and things), and perform sentiment analysis. Computer Vision is an interdisciplinary branch of AI that incorporates knowledge from several domains including physics, signal processing, and neurobiology to understand images and video. Machine learning  dramatically accelerates statistical pattern recognition by learning from examples. Research to predict crop yield from remote sensing data, diagnose heart arrhythmias, and read 2,000-year-old papyri carbonized by the eruption of Vesuvius use machine learning in combination with other AI technologies. [3] The term machine learning suggests that the machine is teaching itself. But the most common learning techniques are supervised, requiring a tremendous amount of human work and the careful curation of training data.[4] The combination of massive amounts of data, accelerated computing power, and a deeper understanding of how we learn have created the conditions for successful applications of multi-layered machine learning known as deep learning that uses Artificial Neural Network architectures. Inspired by the way neurons function within the brain, neural networks can learn features over time and begin to characterize them. This approach has made unsupervised learning possible. A great deal of data is needed, but it need not be human-cultivated training sets. In the cat example popularized by Andrew Ng’s team, instead of feeding the machine millions of images of cats so that it can recognize the features common to a cat, unsupervised learning works by letting the machine create its own classifications of an essentially infinite number of images. Then, when presented with a picture that we have labeled ‘cat,’ it matches that image to its own classification system and returns images that match our labelled image.[5] Earlier this year at the Stanford Business school, Andrew Ng declared AI ‘the new electricity’ with the potential to transform nearly every industry, deeply influencing how we live and work. At Stanford Libraries we are considering the profound change AI can bring as power tools for scholarship, making our vast library collections discoverable, searchable, and analyzable in new ways. Thinking about the transformation AI could bring to libraries is by no means new but the conditions are ripe for us to revisit and rethink Ed Feigenbaum’s vision of the Library of the Future.[6] How best do we bring the skills and knowledge of library staff, scholars, and students together to design an intelligent information system that respects the sources, engages critical inquiry, fosters imagination, and supports human learning and knowledge creation. (Webcomic from Abstruse Goose via Peter Norvig) [1] Recent research at Stanford found speech interfaces three times faster than typing on mobile devices and work in this area has increased rapidly. [2] In a great TedX Boston talk from October 2016 titled, “When Machines Have Ideas,” Ben Vigoda talks about how he was at Stanford writing machine learning algorithms using Artificial Neural Networks trained with the backpropagation algorithm 29 years ago. [3] The study on crop yields was led by Stefano Ermon at Stanford. The work on detecting heart arrhythmias was done by Andrew Ng’s students at Stanford, and the work on reading papyri was led by Brent Seales at the University of Kentucky. [4] Success can require millions of images and this only became possible because of projects like ImageNet (2009) that collected 15 million images in 22,000 categories. [5] Building high-level features using large scale unsupervised learning (2012) [6] Find “Toward the Library of the Future” in the Edward A. Feigenbaum Papers Stanford Libraries exhibit at Stanford: https://exhibits.stanford.edu/feigenbaum and more in the History of Artificial Intelligence exhibit.

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