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  1. Nanotechnology enabled biomedical fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window [electronic resource]

    Hong, Guosong
    2014.

    Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1.0-1.7 microns) has many salient advantages over the visible (400-750 nm) and the traditional near-infrared (NIR-I, 750-900 nm) windows owing to the reduced photon scattering and negligible tissue autofluorescence. However, NIR-II fluorescence imaging has been limited by the scarcity of materials with sufficient NIR-II fluorescence quantum efficiency, and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) had been the only fluorophore for biological imaging in the NIR-II window. This work aims to enhance the intrinsic NIR-II fluorescence of SWNTs, apply SWNTs for in vivo imaging of real-world medical problems in animal models and develop new NIR-II fluorophores other than SWNTs. First, a plasmonic gold substrate is used to enhance the intrinsically low NIR-II fluorescence of SWNTs and to improve the sensitivity of cancer cell imaging using SWNTs as molecular targeting probes. The sensitive distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement of SWNTs is then exploited to probe the trans-membrane motion of single nanotube molecules and reveal the internalization pathway as receptor-mediated endocytosis. The biocompatible SWNTs are further applied to an in vivo animal model of lower limb ischemia, where we demonstrate microvascular imaging and hemodynamic measurement using NIR-II fluorescence, with improved spatial resolution over X-ray computer tomography (CT) and broader dynamic range of blood flowmetry than ultrasound. In a rationally chosen sub-region of NIR-II in the 1.3-1.4 micron range, chemically separated SWNTs allow for non-invasive brain vascular imaging through intact scalp and skull with sub-10 micron resolution at millimeter depth of penetration. Lastly, two new materials, Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) and conjugated copolymers are developed to expand the toolbox of NIR-II fluorophores. The Ag2S QDs afford in vitro targeted cancer cell imaging and in vivo mouse imaging with high tumor uptake. The high fluorescence quantum yield of the conjugated copolymer allows for ultrafast dynamic NIR-II imaging of the arterial blood flow with waveform cardiac cycles revealed in hemodynamic analysis. The many benefits of NIR-II fluorescence imaging demonstrated in this work based on the development of a handful of biocompatible NIR-II nanomaterials bode well for future biological research and clinical applications with this new imaging technique.

  2. Near infrared-emitting nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Cham : Springer, 2020.

    This book analyzes and evaluates the growing field of light-emitting nanoprobes as contrast agents for in vivo imaging and sensing. It is a comprehensive resource that critically analyzes the state of the art in an interdisciplinary manner, with a special focus on the shift of emission wavelengths into the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region (ranging from 0.7 to 2 microns), which has greatly contributed to the latest advances in biomedical imaging and sensing. This book discusses merits of different contrast agents at nanoscale, and how their unique chemical and structural properties lead to the emission and interaction of light within the NIR window. Both the NIR-emitting materials and various surface modification strategies governing their interactions with the biological system at the "nano" level are discussed. Furthermore, different experimental techniques and protocols for NIR-light-based in vivo imaging and sensing are addressed to shed light on further understanding of the advantages and limitations of each category of these nanoprobes. Assembles the state of the art heretofore appearing in scientific literature into a comprehensive, multi-perspective guidebook on near infrared-emitting nanomaterials in an assortment of biomedical applications; Explains the physical, chemical, and biological phenomena underlying near infrared-emitting nanomaterials for biomedical applications; Presents conceptual and experimental approaches surrounding a unique spectral range of light emission from nanosized contrast agents, while offering a clear explanation of basic and general phenomena regarding the interaction between light and biological tissues, such as absorption, scattering and autofluorescenceThis book analyzes and evaluates the growing field of light-emitting nanoprobes as contrast agents for in vivo imaging and sensing. It is a comprehensive resource that critically analyzes the state of the art in an interdisciplinary manner, with a special focus on the shift of emission wavelengths into the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region (ranging from 0.7 to 2 microns), which has greatly contributed to the latest advances in biomedical imaging and sensing. This book discusses merits of different contrast agents at nanoscale, and how their unique chemical and structural properties lead to the emission and interaction of light within the NIR window. Both the NIR-emitting materials and various surface modification strategies governing their interactions with the biological system at the "nano" level are discussed. Furthermore, different experimental techniques and protocols for NIR-light-based in vivo imaging and sensing are addressed to shed light on further understanding of the advantages and limitations of each category of these nanoprobes. Assembles the state of the art heretofore appearing in scientific literature into a comprehensive, multi-perspective guidebook on near infrared-emitting nanomaterials in an assortment of biomedical applications; Explains the physical, chemical, and biological phenomena underlying near infrared-emitting nanomaterials for biomedical applications; Presents conceptual and experimental approaches surrounding a unique spectral range of light emission from nanosized contrast agents, while offering a clear explanation of basic and general phenomena regarding the interaction between light and biological tissues, such as absorption, scattering and autofluorescence.

    Online SpringerLink

  3. Designing the gas, liquid, and electron pathways for electrocatalytic gas-involving systems

    Li, Jun
    [Stanford, California] : [Stanford University], 2021

    Developing sustainable techniques to produce fuels and chemicals is indispensable in reducing carbon dioxide emissions while providing chemical feedstocks for daily use. Large-scale electrocatalytic applications for energy conversion with high cell efficiency are promising candidates but suffer from various problems, of which elucidating and mitigating electrode mass transport issues and system resistance are two crucial aspects. In this dissertation, I first introduce the background and problems of gas-harnessing and gas-generating electrocatalytic reactions, along with discussions about current strategies for enabling their use. Next, I focus on an electrode design to improve the mass transport of gas reactants to enhance the overall electrocatalytic performance by mimicking the mammalian inhalation process. Then, I tackle the gas product bubble-induced resistance by mimicking the mammalian exhalation process to enhance electrocatalytic gas evolution performance. By constructing bubble-free gas evolution electrodes, I conduct comprehensive investigations of the causes of bubble generation in porous membrane systems and identified three key parameters—membrane permeability, membrane hydrophobicity, and electrical conductivity. Finally, I demonstrate a 3D 3-phase electrode design that considers three pathways--electron, ion, and gas--as well as effective catalytic active sites including both quality (activity) and quantity (loading). Using a hydrogen model system with platinum catalysts, this 3D continuous 3-phase matrix electrode exhibits superior on-site hydrogen generation, separation, and reusage performance

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