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  1. The Cambridge companion to ancient logic

    Cambridge, United Kingdom ; New York, NY : Cambridge University Press, 2023

    "In late antiquity interpreters of Plato's philosophy insisted that the whole of logic was already present in his dialogues. All kinds of syllogisms were used by Socrates and his interlocutors, and it was left to Aristotle and his successors only to name, classify and formalise them.1 This approach remained popular among interpreters until the first half of the 20th century.2 More recent historians of logic have protested that in order to 'discover' or 'invent' logic it is not sufficient to reason according to certain valid patterns, or to represent someone acting in this way in a fictional dialogue. But there is a sense in which Plato did play a key role in the birth and development of ancient logic, a role which is often underplayed in histories of logic. In his dialogues Plato identified and explored a number of central philosophical issues to which logical concepts and methods offered powerful responses, if not definitive solutions. In this way, he was an essential catalyst for the birth of logic: if ancient logic was the promised land, Plato was its Moses. He never set foot in it, but enabled others to see the destination. Of course, when setting this agenda, Plato was not operating in a philosophical vacuum; often he was engaging in original ways with problems raised or foreshadowed by some of his predecessors and contemporaries (on the 'prehistory' of logic see CHAPTER 1 - DENYER)"--

  2. Cat├ęgories

    Aristotle
    1. ed. - Paris : Belles lettres, 2001.

  3. Inference from signs : ancient debates about the nature of evidence

    Allen, James V.
    Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2008.

    James Allen presents an original and penetrating investigation of the notion of inference from signs, which played a central role in ancient philosophical and scientific method. Allen masters a broad range of ancient texts, discussing Aristotle, the Sceptics, the Stoics, and the Epicureans, to provide the first comprehensive treatment of his topic. - ; James Allen presents an original and penetrating investigation of the notion of inference from signs, which played a central role in ancient philosophical and scientific method. Inference from Signs examines an important chapter in ancient episte.James Allen presents an original and penetrating investigation of the notion of inference from signs, which played a central role in ancient philosophical and scientific method. Inference from Signs examines an important chapter in ancient epistemology: the debates about the nature of evidence and of the inferences based on it-or signs and sign-inferences as they were called in antiquity. Special attention is paid to three main issues. Firstly, the relation between sign-inference and explanation. At a minimum, sign-inferences permit us to draw a new conclusion, and they are used in this way in every sphere of life. But inferences must do more than this if they are to play the parts assigned to them by natural philosophers and medical theorists, who appeal to signs to support the theories they put forward to explain the phenomena in their domains. Allen examines the efforts made by Aristotle, the Stoics, the Epicureans, and in medicine to discover what further conditions must be satisfied by inferences if they are to advance explanatory purposes. To speak of inference from signs presupposes that the use of signs is a form of reasoning from grounds to a conclusion. However, an alternative nonrational conception is explored, according to which the use of signs depends instead on acquired dispositions to be reminded by one thing or another. This view is traced to its probable origin in the Empirical school of medicine, whence it was taken by Pyrrhonian sceptics, who introduced it into philosophy. Evidence sometimes supports conclusive arguments, but at other times it only makes a conclusion probable. Allen investigates Aristotle's path-breaking attempt to erect standards by which to evaluate non-conclusive but-in Aristotelian terms-reputable inferences. Inference from Signs fills an important gap in the histories of science and philosophy and provides the first comprehensive treatment of this topic.

    Online EBSCO Academic Comprehensive Collection

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