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  1. A fusion nuclear science facility for a fast-track path to DEMO [electronic resource].

    Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Science ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 2014

    An accelerated fusion energy development program, a fast-track approach, requires proceeding with a nuclear and materials testing program in parallel with research on burning plasmas, ITER. A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) would address many of the key issues that need to be addressed prior to DEMO, including breeding tritium and completing the fuel cycle, qualifying nuclear materials for high fluence, developing suitable materials for the plasma-boundary interface, and demonstrating power extraction. The Advanced Tokamak (AT) is a strong candidate for an FNSF as a consequence of its mature physics base, capability to address the key issues, and the direct relevance to an attractive target power plant. The standard aspect ratio provides space for a solenoid, assuring robust plasma current initiation, and for an inboard blanket, assuring robust tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1 for FNSF tritium self-sufficiency and building of inventory needed to start up DEMO. An example design point gives a moderate sized Cu-coil device with R/a = 2.7 m/0.77 κ = 2.3, BT= 5.4 T, IP = 6.6 MA, βN = 2.75, Pfus = 127 MW. The modest bootstrap fraction of fBS = 0.55 provides an opportunity to develop steady state with sufficient current drive for adequate control. Lastly, proceeding with a FNSF in parallel with ITER provides a strong basis to begin construction of DEMO upon the achievement of Q ~ 10 in ITER.

    Online OSTI

  2. Interaction of external n = 1 magnetic fields with the sawtooth instability in low-q RFX-mod and DIII-D tokamaks [electronic resource].

    Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy. ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 2016

    External n = 1 magnetic fields are applied in RFX-mod and DIII-D low safety factor Tokamak plasmas to investigate their interaction with the internal MHD dynamics and in particular with the sawtooth instability. In these experiments the applied magnetic fields cause a reduction of both the sawtooth amplitude and period, leading to an overall stabilizing effect on the oscillations. In RFX-mod sawteeth eventually disappear and are replaced by a stationary m = 1, n = 1 helical equilibrium without an increase in disruptivity. However toroidal rotation is significantly reduced in these plasmas, thus it is likely that the sawtooth mitigation in these experiments is due to the combination of the helically deformed core and the reduced rotation. The former effect is qualitatively well reproduced by nonlinear MHD simulations performed with the PIXIE3D code. The results obtained in these RFX-mod experiments motivated similar ones in DIII-D L-mode diverted Tokamak plasmas at low q 95. These experiments succeeded in reproducing the sawtooth mitigation with the approach developed in RFX-mod. In DIII-D this effect is correlated with a clear increase of the n = 1 plasma response, that indicates an enhancement of the coupling to the marginally stable n = 1 external kink, as simulations with the linear MHD code IPEC suggest. A significant rotation braking in the plasma core is also observed in DIII-D. Finally, numerical calculations of the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) carried out with PENT identify this torque as a possible contributor for this effect.

    Online OSTI

  3. A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility for a fast-track path to DEMO [electronic resource].

    Washington, D.C. : United States. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 2014

    An accelerated fusion energy development program, a “fast-track” approach, requires developing an understanding of fusion nuclear science (FNS) in parallel with research on ITER to study burning plasmas. A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) in parallel with ITER provides the capability to resolve FNS feasibility issues related to power extraction, tritium fuel sustainability, and reliability, and to begin construction of DEMO upon the achievement of Q~10 in ITER. Fusion nuclear components, including the first wall (FW)/blanket, divertor, heating/fueling systems, etc. are complex systems with many inter-related functions and different materials, fluids, and physical interfaces. These in-vessel nuclear components must operate continuously and reliably with: (a) Plasma exposure, surface particle & radiation loads, (b) High energy 2 neutron fluxes and their interactions in materials (e.g. peaked volumetric heating with steep gradients, tritium production, activation, atomic displacements, gas production, etc.), (c) Strong magnetic fields with temporal and spatial variations (electromagnetic coupling to the plasma including off-normal events like disruptions), and (d) a High temperature, high vacuum, chemically active environment. While many of these conditions and effects are being studied with separate and multiple effect experimental test stands and modeling, fusion nuclear conditions cannot be completely simulated outside the fusion environment. This means there are many new multi-physics, multi-scale phenomena and synergistic effects yet to be discovered and accounted for in the understanding, design and operation of fusion as a self-sustaining, energy producing system, and significant experimentation and operational experience in a true fusion environment is an essential requirement. In the following sections we discuss the FNSF objectives, describe the facility requirements and a facility concept and operation approach that can accomplish those objectives, and assess the readiness to construct with respect to several key FNSF issues: materials, steady-state operation, disruptions, power exhaust, and breeding blanket. Finally we present our conclusions.

    Online OSTI

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