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  1. Social Exclusion and Land Administration in Orissa, India [electronic resource]

    Mearns, Robin
    Washington, D.C. : The World Bank, 1999.

    May 1999 - Which factors prevent the rural poor and other socially excluded groups from having access to land in Orissa, India? The authors report on the first empirical study of its kind to examine - from the perspective of transaction costs--factors that constrain access to land for the rural poor and other socially excluded groups in India. They find that: Land reform has reduced large landholdings since the 1950s. Medium size farms have gained most. Formidable obstacles still prevent the poor from gaining access to land; The complexity of land revenue administration in Orissa is partly the legacy of distinctly different systems, which produced more or less complete and accurate land records. These not-so-distant historical records can be important in resolving contemporary land disputes; Orissa tried legally to abolish land-leasing. Concealed tenancy persisted, with tenants having little protection under the law; Women's access to and control over land, and their bargaining power with their husbands about land, may be enhanced through joint land titling, a principle yet to be realized in Orissa; Land administration is viewed as a burden on the state rather than a service, and land records and registration systems are not coordinated. Doing so will improve rights for the poor and reduce transaction costs--but only if the system is transparent and the powerful do not retain the leverage over settlement officers that has allowed land grabs. Land in Orissa may be purchased, inherited, rented (leased), or--in the case of public land and the commons--encroached upon. Each type of transaction--and the State's response, through land law and administration--has implications for poor people's access to land. The authors find that: Land markets are thin and transaction costs are high, limiting the amount of agricultural land that changes hands; The fragmentation of landholdings into tiny, scattered plots is a brake on agricultural productivity, but efforts to consolidate land may discriminate against the rural poor. Reducing transaction costs in land markets will help; Protecting the rural poor's rights of access to common land requires raising public awareness and access to information; Liberalizing land-lease markets for the rural poor will help, but only if the poor are ensured access to institutional credit. This paper--a product of the Rural Development Sector Unit, South Asia Region--is part of a larger effort in the region to promote access to land and to foster more demand-driven and socially inclusive institutions in rural development. Robin Mearns may be contacted at rmearns@worldbank.org.

    Online World Bank eLibrary

  2. Orissa, India: Village Socio-Demographic and Economic Census Data, 1991

    New Delhi, IN : ML InfoMap (Firm), 2018

    This polygon dataset shows village boundaries with socio-demographic and economic Census data for 1991 for the State of Orissa, India linked to the 1991 Census. Includes village socio-demographic and economic Census attribute data such as total population, population by sex, household, literacy and illiteracy rates, and employment by industry. This layer is part of the VillageMap dataset which includes socio-demographic and economic Census data for 1991 at the village level for all the states of India. This data layer is sourced from secondary government sources, chiefly Survey of India, Census of India, Election Commission, etc.This dataset is intended for researchers, students, and policy makers for reference and mapping purposes, and may be used for village level demographic analysis within basic applications to support graphical overlays and analysis with other spatial data.

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  1. 2001 Orissa, India: Village Amenities, Infrastructure, and Census Data

    2001

    This polygon shapefile shows village boundaries with socio-demographic and economic Census data for 2001 for the state of Orissa, India linked to t...

  2. Orissa, India: Village Socio-Demographic and Economic Census Data, 2001

    ML InfoMap (Firm)
    2001

    This polygon shapefile shows village boundaries with socio-demographic and economic Census data for 2001 for the State of Orissa, India linked to t...

  3. Orissa, India: Village Socio-Demographic and Economic Census Data, 1991

    ML InfoMap (Firm)
    1991

    This polygon dataset shows village boundaries with socio-demographic and economic Census data for 1991 for the State of Orissa, India linked to the...

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