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  1. Molecular beam epitaxy : a short history

    Orton, J. W. (John Wilfred)
    First edition. - Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2015.

    Our book is a history of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) as applied to the growth of semiconductor thin films (note that we do not cover the subject of metal thin films). We begin by examining the origins of MBE, first of all looking at the nature of molecular beams and considering their application to fundamental physics, to the development of nuclear magnetic resonance and to the invention of the microwave MASER. We show how molecular beams of silane (SiH4) were used to study the nucleation of silicon films on a silicon substrate and how such studies were extended to compound semiconductors such as GaAs. From such surface studies in ultra-high vacuum the technique developed into a method of growing high quality single crystal films of a wide range of semiconductors. We compare this with earlier evaporation methods of deposition and with other epitaxial deposition methods such as liquid phase and vapour phase epitaxy (LPE and VPE). We describe the development of MBE machines from the early 'home-made' variety to that of commercial equipment and show how MBE was gradually refined to produce high quality films with atomic dimensions. This was much aided by the use of various in-situ surface analysis techniques, such as reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and mass spectrometry, a feature unique to MBE. We look at various modified versions of the basic MBE process, then proceed to describe their application to the growth of so-called 'low-dimensional structures' (LDS) based on ultra-thin heterostructure films with thickness of order a few molecular monolayers. Further chapters cover the growth of a wide range of different compounds and describe their application to fundamental physics and to the fabrication of electronic and opto-electronic devices. We study the historical development of all these aspects and emphasise both the (often unexpected) manner of their discovery and development and the unique features which MBE brings to the growth of extremely complex structures with monolayer accuracy.

    Online Oxford Scholarship Online

  2. The story of semiconductors

    Orton, J. W. (John Wilfred)
    Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2004.

    The book provides an overview of the fascinating spectrum of semiconductor physics, devices and applications, presented from a historical perspective. It covers the development of the subject from its inception in the early nineteenth century to the recent millennium. Written in a lively, informal style, it emphasizes the interaction between pure scientific push and commercial pull, on the one hand, and between basic physics, materials, and devices, on the other. It also sets the various device developments in the context of systems requirements and explains how such developments met wide ranging consumer demands. It is written so as to appeal to students at all levels in physics, electrical engineering, and materials science, to teachers, lecturers, and professionals working in the field, as well as to a non-specialist scientific readership.

    Online EBSCO University Press

  3. The story of semiconductors [electronic resource]

    Orton, J. W. (John Wilfred)
    Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2009.

    In describing the historical development of semiconductor devices this book relates their application to human needs. It describes these developments in human terms and can be enjoyed by students of physics, electrical engineering and materials science as well as by a wide range of scientists from other disciplines.The book provides an overview of the fascinating spectrum of semiconductor physics, devices and applications, presented from a historical perspective. It covers the development of the subject from its inception in the early nineteenth century to the recent millennium. Written in a lively, informal style, it emphasizes the interaction between pure scientific push and commercial pull, on the one hand, and between basic physics, materials, and devices, on the other. It also sets the various device developments in the context of systems requirements and explains how such developments met wide ranging consumer demands. It is written so as to appeal to students at all levels in physics, electrical engineering, and materials science, to teachers, lecturers, and professionals working in the field, as well as to a non-specialist scientific readership.

    Online Oxford Scholarship Online

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