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  1. Effects of Latency and Refresh Rate on Force Perception via Sensory Substitution by Force-Controlled Skin Deformation Feedback

    Zook, Zane Anthony
    May 14, 2018

    Latency and refresh rate are known to adversely affect human force perception in bilateral teleoperators and virtual environments using kinesthetic force feedback, motivating the use of sensory substitution of force. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of latency and refresh rate on force perception using sensory substitution by skin deformation feedback. A force-controlled skin deformation feedback device was attached to a 3-degree-of-freedom kinesthetic force feedback device used for position tracking and gravity support. A human participant study was conducted to determine the effects of latency and refresh rate on perceived stiffness and damping with skin deformation feedback. Participants compared two virtual objects: a comparison object with stiffness or damping that could be tuned by the participant, and a reference object with either added latency or reduced refresh rate. Participants modified the stiffness or damping of the tunable object until it resembled the stiffness or damping of the reference object. We found that added latency and reduced refresh rate both increased perceived stiffness but had no effect on perceived damping. Specifically, participants felt significantly different stiffness when the latency exceeded 300 ms and the refresh rate dropped below 16.6 Hz. The impact of latency and refresh rate on force perception via skin deformation feedback was significantly less than what has been previously shown for kinesthetic force feedback.

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